Stalin's Russia-- Section 1: The Struggle For Power

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  • Stalin's Russia-- Section 1: The Struggle For Power
    • Russia Before Stalin
      • Russias geography and people
        • Largest land empire in modern history
          • 4000 miles across and 2000 up.
        • Population of 165 million at beginning of 20th century
          • 80% were peasant farmers
            • Just 4% industrial workers
      • Tsarism
        • Russia ruled by Romanov dynasty for 3 centuries
        • Revolution in 1917- Tsar Nicholas II overthrown
          • Revolution due to Russia's difficulty in WW1
          • Set up "provisional government"
      • Rise Of Bolshevism
        • 1917--Lenin Returns
        • Lenin supported the newly formed "soviets"
          • Believed soviets superior to provisional government
          • By late 1917 carried out October Revolution
            • "armed seizure of government power"
      • Marxist-Leninism
        • Marxist theory of history
          • Primitive communism: Humans hunt/ gather and share what they have
            • REVOLUTION
              • Feudalism: Monarch rules- allocates land to lower classes
                • REVOLUTION
                  • Capitalism: society dominated by bourgeoisie and proletariat
                    • REVOLUTION
                      • Socialism: Proletariat take power
                        • REVOLUTION
                          • Communism: No class conflict-- human equality achieved
        • Lenin believed that Marx's theory needed to be adapted to be relevant to Russia
          • believed that it would be possible for Russia to skip the capitalist stage and go straight to socialism
      • Bolsheviks in power
        • By 1918 changed their name to communists
        • Civil war
          • Communists were known as the "Red Army"
            • Faced "The White Army" fighting to re-establish the Russian monarchy.
            • "The Green Army" guerilla force of peasants fighting for a democratic version of socialism
            • Britain, France, the United Statesand Japan also sent forces to destroy the new government
            • Red Army was commanded by Trotsky
        • Economic policies
          • War Communism
            • Economic system created during the war
            • Geared the economy towards military production
            • Work or military service became compulsory
              • Food was rationed
          • The New Economic Policy (NEP)
            • Designed to deal with the crippled economy after the civil war
            • Legalised private trade
            • Introduced tax-in-kind (being taxed through goods)
    • Personalities and powerbases
      • There were five contenders who had a chance of leading Russia after Lenin
        • Trotsky
          • Played a major role in October revolution
          • Led the red army during the civil war
          • Initially sided with the mensheviks
            • Relationship with Lenin was turbulent until 1917
              • In 1917 worked closely with Lenin when he joined the communists
        • Stalin
          • Joined the communist party in 1902
          • Played the role of military tactician in the October revolution
          • By 1921 he was well ingrained in the highest levels of government
          • While Lenin was healthy he made sure to agree with him on all controversial issues
            • however, he began to oppose him once he fell ill
          • He had a strong appeal within the party
            • He had the ability to advance the careers of many of those within the party
            • He adopted a moderate position
            • Appealed to the national pride of Russia's people
        • Bukharin
          • The youngest potential heir
          • He helped to seize power in Moscow during October revolution
          • Admired Lenin highly
            • Lenin referred to him as the "Golden Boy" of the party
        • Zinoviev
          • Opposed the October revolution
            • Spent the Civil war in a hotel in Petrograd
          • Close friendship with Lenin
            • They wrote a number of books together
            • This changed once they returned in 1917 however
              • he violently opposed Lenin on two crucial issues
                • The october revolution
                • The decision not to share power with other socialist parties
        • Kamenev
          • Opposed the October revolution and played no real part in the civil war
          • Lenin's closest friend (after Zinoviev) until 1917 when he began to virulently oppose him
          • Lacked a lot of support within the party
    • Ideological conflict
      • Left wing
        • Supported by Trotsky
          • Rejected NEP
            • Gave power to the peasants rather than the industrial workers
            • A step in the wrong direction as it allocated more power to the capitalists
          • Committed to immediate industrialisation
          • Permanent revolution
            • Did not believe that a singular socialist society could exist alone
      • Centre
        • Supported by Stalin
          • Pragmatic commitment to NEP
          • Commited to industrialisation in the near future
          • Socialism in one country
      • Right wing
        • Supported by Bukharin
          • Acceptance of the NEP
          • Commited to industrialisation in the distant future
          • Socialism in one country

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