Russia under Stalin

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  • Stalin
    • Rise to power
      • He used his position in the Bolshevik Party to his advantage
        • appointed people who supported him/shared his ideas
        • formed anti-Trotsky alliance with Kamenev and Zinoviev in 1924
          • 1926, Stalin turns on Zinoviev and Kamenev, joining forces with Bukharin and the right of the party
            • 1927 Trotsky,  Zinoviev, Kamenev and  were expelled from the party
              • Stalin turned on Bukharin and right wing politicians. He attacked the NEP, saying it was uncommunist, and had them removed from office.
                • By 1929, Stalin was the undisputed leader of the USSR.
              • (left-wing Bolsheviks who had opposed NEP)
      • Ideology and Propaganda
        • socialism in one country
          • achieve a stable, socialist/communist Russia before spreading revolution
            • Stalin criticised Trotsky - said he did not not believe in the Russian people
              • Believed Russia needed support from more advanced country's to become comunnist
            • people did not want to risk further foreign intervention after the civil war
              • it was feared Trotsky's policy of world revolution would anger foreign powers
            • people needed peace and stability after the years of revolution and civil war
              • Therefore, Stalin's ideology was more appealing to the general public.
        • Trotsky's ideology
          • encourage world revolution
          • Believed Russia needed support from more advanced country's to become comunnist
        • released picture of himself with Lenin
        • made himself out to be Lenin's disciple
      • Trickery
        • Tricked Trotsky into missing Lenin's funeral. Trotsky turned up a day late. A lot of people loved  Lenin. They thought Trotsky didn't care
          • meanwhile Stalin made a stirring speech praising Lenin
            • made him look like Lenin's close friend and an obvious person to follow after Lenin
      • Before his death, Lenin wrote a testament.
        • In it, he criticised Stalin, saying he was too rude and should be removed from his post as general secretary
          • Kamenev and Zinoviev prevented his removal from post . (little did they know Stalin was just using them.)
          • However, the testament also criticised other high command Bolsheviks and the decision was made that it should not be released.
    • Purges
      • In 1934 Kirov, leadrer of the Leningrad Communist party, was murdered
        • This was most likely on Stalin's orders as Kirov was very popular with the Russian people - to popular.
        • This marked the start of the purges known as the Great Terror. Stalin used this episode as an excuse for the purges.
          • Who was purged?
            • Communist leadership
              • 93 out of the 139 Central committee leaders put to death
                • photographs and history books were changed to eliminate even the memory of those arrested
                  • 81 out of 103 admirals executed
            • the armed forces
              • 81 out of 103 admirals executed
              • Red army targeted as they were likely to be loyal to Trotsky
            • The Communist Party
              • 1/3 of members purged
              • 3 million members
                • 1/3 of members purged
            • Ordinary people
              • by 1930's the Great Terror had spread to ordinary people
              • 20 million sent to Gulags where as many as half died
                • (Gulags - labour camps)
              • People were turned into NKVD, never to be seen again, by people they'd annoyed
                • Distrust and fear among the people
            • Chistka - where Stalin kicks out undesirables from the Bolsheviks
              • 20% expelled
    • Control
      • securing his position as ruler
        • removed opposition
          • People unhappy with Stalin ruling Russia and wanted Trotsky
            • Trotsky exiled and later assassinated
          • Red army targeted as they were likely to be loyal to Trotsky
          • Trial and execution of old Bolsheviks who might know Lenin didn't like him
      • Controlling his people
        • The Yezhovshrina
          • mass killings 1937-8
    • Praises
      • Stalin was in every aspect of Russian life
        • Newspapers praised him with every success
          • He was thanked for bringing the spring, the harvest etc.
      • Parents taught their children to love Stalin more than themselves - they dared do nothing else.
      • whenever Stalin's name was mentioned people would leap to their feet and applaud.
      • Stalin changed history books to give himself a heroic role in the 1917 revolution, whereas actually he had been in Siberia in exile at the time.
      • Stalin's Personality cult
        • presented as god-like. He replaced religion in Russia - people worshipped him like a God
        • Posters presented Stalin as fatherly, a family guy and loving father.
      • education
        • Children were taught about Stalin in school

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