Sports Nutrition

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  • Sports Nutrition
    • Carbohydrates
      • Complex carbohydrates are nutrient-dense, filling and low in fat
        • Eg. Bread, pasta, rice, beans
      • Eat high carbohydrate, low fat foods before (2-3 hours) and after exercise (snack)
      • Glycogen stores in the muscles and  liver store carbohydrates and once used muscles can't work effeciently
      • Three days before an endurance event you should start 'carbohydrate loading' to ensure enough in stores and maximise performance
    • Fluid Balance
      • Before, during and after-lost through sweat
      • Fluid balance in the blood
      • Athletes > 6-8 glasses per day
      • Sports drink-high levels of sugar and salt-dental caries and weight gain
    • Energy
      • Depends on intensity, duration, frequency and type
      • Also depends on gender, age, level of fitness and body fat stores
    • Hydration
      • Hypotonic
        • Less concentrated than body fluids-absorbed quickly
      • Hypertonic
        • More concentrated than body fluids-don't prevent dehydration
      • Isotnic
        • Same concentration as body fluids
    • Protein
      • Growth and repair
        • Eg. meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy, beans, pulses, quorn, tofu and nuts
      • Need protein to gain muscle-weight lifting/ marathon runners
      • Control carbohydrate so protein isn't used
    • Fat
      • High intake makes it difficult to meet carbohydrate requirements
      • Monitor saturated fat intake
      • Affects weight management
    • Vitamins and Minerals
      • Varied diet = good range
      • B group important for energy release
        • Eg. fortified cereals, meat, dairy, eggs, pulses, green leafy vegetables
      • Vitamin C to help absorb iron
        • Red Blood Cells-transport oxygen around the body
      • Calcium builds towards peak bone mass and stronger skeleton
    • Iron
      • Iron needed for blood lost through menstruation
      • Red Blood Cells carry oxygen - great effect on performance


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