Personality and Attitudes

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  • Personality
    • Attitudes
      • Combinations of beliefs and feelings which lead us to think and behave positively or negatively
      • Attitudes tend to be deep seated and enduring, but can change or be changed
      • Triadic Model
        • Cognitive
          • knowledge and beliefs
        • Affective
          • feelings and emotions
        • Behavioural
          • intended behaviour
      • Formation of Attitudes
        • media
        • past experiences
        • prejudice
        • coaches
        • teachers
        • family
        • peers
        • friends
        • conditioning strengthens attitudes
        • familiarity with an attitude object can change an attitude towards it
      • Prejudice
        • prejudgement of a person group or situation
        • usually based on inadequate information
        • tends to reinforce stereotypes
      • Sports Stereotypes
        • people form attitudes which are negative stereotypes about certain groups participating in sports
        • women in strength, endurance, and contact sports
        • participation of the disabled in physical activity
        • older age groups' interest and ability in sport
        • participation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teams
          • black quarterback
          • white sprinter
          • black swimmer or skier
      • Attitude Change by Persuasive Communication
        • the subject must pay attention, and must understand, accept, and retain the message being given
        • the coach must be expert and be trustworthy
        • the message must be clear, unambiguous, be balanced between emotion and logic, and be balanced between pros and cons
      • Attitude Change by Cognitive Dissonance
        • two completely different and contradictory facts affect the behaviour of a sportsperson
        • need conflict between behavioural components leading to cognitive dissonance
    • Personality describes the unique characteristics of an individual that makes them act as they do
    • Knowledge about personality is important to ensure optimum sporting performance
    • Trait Theories
      • Use the idea that the person has always had a feature of their personality
      • General
      • Underlying
      • Enduring
      • Predisposition that tells you how a person will act in a situation
      • Labels are intended to last forever
      • Stable Extrovert (outgoing, carefree)
      • Neurotic Extrovert (restless, aggressive)
      • Neurotic Introvert (anxious, rigid)
      • Stable Introvert (controlled, reliable)
    • Social Learning Theories
      • Learn to deal with situations by observing others
      • People model their behaviour on what they have seen
      • Athletes learn behaviour as well as skill by observing others
      • Social comparison will make a person behave the same as their peer group
      • Social approval and disapproval determines response
      • Vicarious conditioning is the learning of emotional responses through observational learning
    • Hollander's Structure of Personality
      • Psychological Core
        • beliefs and values that remain more or less permanent
      • Typical Behaviour
        • the way an individual responds in certain situations
      • Role-Related Behaviour
        • in other situations we may act differently
      • Social Environment
        • behaviour and expectations of others affects our role
    • Interactionist Theories
      • A combination of trait and a situation or environment builds up a person's personality
      • Traits determine behaviour but can be modified by situations
      • Lewin was the theorist that came up with the mathematical form
        • B=f(PxE)
    • Type A Personality
      • impatience
      • works at a rapid pace
      • higher levels of stress
      • strong desire to succeed
      • easily aroused
      • shows anxiety in stressful situations
      • lacking in tolerance
      • has a need to be in control
      • makes decisions quickly without much though
    • Type B Personality
      • relaxed and patient
      • allows time for tasks to be completed
      • low personal stress
      • less competitive
      • calm and unflappable in most situations
      • tolerance of others' mistakes
      • delegates easily
      • waits and assesses all options for decisions
    • Personality Testing
      • Interviews
        • before or after the event
        • not directly related to performance
        • usually open-ended and flexible
        • difficult to quantify accurately
      • Questionnaire
        • implemented before or after the event
        • not directly related to performance
      • Observations
        • made during an event
        • directly related to performance
      • Profile of Mood States
        • sports-specific questionnaire
        • determines mood of a sports performer and attempts to relate this to the quality of performance
        • moods are an important aspect of personality which may influence performance
        • moods assessed by this test are: tension, depression, anger, vigour, fatigue, confusion

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