Spoken Language

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  • Spoken Language
    • Stress and Intonation
      • Stress emphasis of syllables
      • Intonation is the variation of pitch
    • Functions
      • Transactional; getting something done
      • Expressive; expression to feelings
      • Instructional; how to do something
      • Phatic; socialising through 'small talk'
      • Referential; factual knowledge
      • Persuasive; point of view, changing someone's mind
      • Performative; an action with a 'set' form of words
    • Structure
      • Monologue; one speaker
      • Dialogue; two or more speakers
      • Line of speech is an utterance
      • Longer piece of text is a discourse
    • Non Fluency Features
      • Fillers; words with no meaning 'like' 'yanno'
      • Filled Pause; hesitations 'um' 'er' If pause is silent its a 'unvoiced pause'
      • False Starts; self correction
      • Elision; letters missing 'Lemee go!'
      • Ellipsis' words missing from text
      • Tag Question; questions that encourage agreement
      • SBC; showing speaker they are following 'I see' 'ok uhum'
      • Paralinguistic features; outside of language. (laughs) (gasps)
      • Discourse Marker; signals a person wants to start talking 'ok then..' 'well...'
    • Transcripts; written version of spoken language
      • Short Pause (.) Long Pause (3)
      • Literal; the locution of sentence. Intended; the illocution of the sentence
        • "I'm still putting my shoes on" Literal (locution)
          • "Wait for me" Intended (Illocution)
      • Hedges; shows uncertainty "He's 12, I think"
      • Adjacency Pairs; an utterance that leads to a response
        • Chaining; adjacency pairs linked
    • Register; determined by relationship of speakers and context of situation
      • describes a form of language appropriate to a situation
        • talking to a doctor about a private health problem =formal


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