CLA: Spoken

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  • Spoken
    • Context
      • Stages of development (lexical and grammatical)
        • Holophrastic: one word utterances
        • Two-word: two word combinations
        • Telegraphic: three or more words combined with some words omitted
        • Post-telegraphic: grammatically correct utterances
      • Preverbal stage
        • Vegetative sounds of discomfort/ reflexive actions
        • Cooing: comfort sounds and coal play using open mouthed vowel sounds
        • Babbling: repeated patterns of consonant and vowel sounds
        • Proto-words: word like vocalisations, not matching actual words but used consistently for the same meaning.
      • Participants and their relationship, setting
      • Other contextual factors. e.g. cultural influences like tv, books etc.
        • Vygotsky: toys = play pivots  to support play and scaffold development when  young but uses imagination when they're older
        • social experiences: Bruner: ritualised activities
    • Phonology
      • Types of sounds produced
        • Plosives: created when airflow is blocked for a brief time
          • Voiced: B, P G
          • Unvoiced: P, T, K
        • Fricatives: when airflow is partially constricted and air moves through the mouth in a steady stream
          • Voiced: V, Ó, Z
          • Unvoiced: F, S
        • Affricative: plosives and fricatives together
          • Voiced: 'dg'
          • Unvoiced: 'ch'
        • Approximants: similar sounds to vowels
          • Voiced: W, R, J
        • Nasals: air moving through the nose
          • Voiced: N, M
        • Laterals: placing the tongue on the ridge of the teeth and then air moving down the side of the mouth
          • Voiced: L
      • Early phonological errors:
        • Deletion: omitting the final consonant in words
        • Substitution: substituting one sound for another
        • Assimilation: adding an extra vowel sound to the end of words = CVCV pattern
        • Reduplication: repeating a whole syllable
        • Consonant cluster reduction: consonant clusters are difficult to articulate, so children reduce them to smaller units
        • Deletion of unstressed syllable: omitting the opening syllable in polysyballic words
    • Lexis/ Semantics
      • Nelson
        • Four categories of first words:
          • Naming (things or people)
          • Actions/ events
          • Describing/ modifying things
          • Personal/ social words
        • 60% of first words are nouns
        • Followed by verbs, modifiers and personal/ social words (8%)
      • Overextension: linking objects with similar qualities together
        • Categorical overextension: the name of one member of a category is extended to all members of a category
          • Apple for all round objects. 60%
        • Analogical overextension: a word for an object is extended to one in a different category, based on it having similar physical or functional connection
          • Ball is used for all round fruit. 15%
        • Mismatch statement: one-word sentences that appear quite abstract; child makes the statement about one object in relation to another
          • Saying 'duck' when looking at an empty pond. 25%
      • Aitchison:
        • Stage 1: labelling
          • Linking words to the objects to which they refer
        • Stage 2: packaging
          • exploring the labels and to what extent they can apply. Over/ under extension occurs to understand the range of words meanings
        • Stage 3: Network-building
          • making connections between words, understanding similarities and opposites in meanings
      • Piaget: children are active learners who use their environment and social interactions to shape their language
        • Sensorimotor:
          • Begins classifying the things in the physical word; lexical choices are more often concrete rather than abstract.
        • Pre-operational
          • motor skills and language skills are now more competent. language is egocentric
        • concrete operational:
          • children begin to think logically about concrete events.
        • Formal operational
          • abstract reasoning skills develop
      • Clarke
        • within children's first words, common adjectives are the most frequent
          • 'big', 'small'
        • Spatial adjectives are acquired later
          • 'wide', 'narrow', 'thick', 'thin'
    • Grammar
      • Stages and their grammatical constructions
        • Holophrastic stage
          • one word
        • two word
          • Subject + verb
          • Verb +Object
          • etc.
        • Telegraphic
          • Subject + Verb + Object
          • Subject + Verb + complement
          • Subject + verb + adverbial
        • Post-telegraphic stage
          • Awareness of grammatical rules and little vertious errors
      • Questionning
        • One and two-word stage: formed by rising intonation alone
        • Can start to form closed ended interrogatives when they're able to use auxiliary verbs and a shift in syntax
        • 'what', 'where', 'when', 'why' are used often at the beginning of an utterance fairly early on during development.
      • Bullugi
        • Negatives
          • Stage 1: child uses 'no' or 'not' at the beginning or the end of a sentence.
          • Stage two: 'no' or 'not' in the middle of a sentence
          • Stage 3:attaches the negative to the auxiliary verb
        • Pronouns
          • Stage 1: the children use their own names
          • Stage 2: starts using I/me in different places inside a sentence
          • Stage 3: uses them according to whether they are the subject or erobject within a sentence
      • Determiners: attached onto nouns
        • function words acquired later in acquisition
        • articles: a, the
        • numerals
        • possessives
        • quantifiers: some, many
        • demonstratives: this
      • Virtuous errors and overgeneralisation
        • overgeneraklisation supports Chomsky.
          • Chomsky
            • learning takes place in the innate brain
            • Language acquisition device
              • learning takes place in the innate brain
              • pre-programmed with the ability to acquire grammatical structures.
    • Discourse
      • Child directed speech
        • repetition/ expansion/ recasting
          • Skinner: imitation theory.
        • a higher pitch
        • vocatives rather than pronouns
        • using the present tense
        • one word utterances/ elliptical short sentences
        • fewer verbs/ modifiers
        • concrete nouns
        • exaggerated pausing
          • Conversational management and turn taking: knowing when to speak
        • closed ended interogatives
    • Pragmatics:
      • Implicature: what we mean rather than what we say
      • inference: iinterpreting what others mean
      • Politeness: using the right words and phrases to be polite
        • Positive face: where individuals desire social approval and being oncluded
        • Negative: where an individual asserts their need to be independent and make their won decisions
      • Conversational management and turn taking: knowing when to speak
      • Halliday's functions
        • Instrumental: fulfils a need
        • regulatory: influence the behviour of others
        • Interactional: develop and maintain social relationships
        • Personal: Convey opinions, ideas and personal identity
        • representational: convey facts and information
        • Imaginative: create an imaginary world
        • Heuristic: learn about the environment
      • Dore's language acquisition
        • labelling
        • Repeating
        • Answering
        • Requesting action
        • Calling
        • Greeting
        • Protesting
        • Practicing

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