Speech Perception

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Speech Perception
    • Top-down or Bottom-up?
      • Top-down: Internal state to external
        • Supplements bottom-up in  degraded sentences, due to prior knowledge of language.
        • Expectations help turn sounds into sentences.
        • Prior knowledge and expectations help predict, parse and understand sentences.
        • Can lead to errors in speech perception e.g. 'Starbuck 's lovers'.
      • Bottom-up: External state to internal
        • What we hear/see, resulting from the stimulation of the auditory receptors.
    • Defining speech
      • Disturbance of air caused when air is pushed through lungs, changing pattern of air pressure through different vocal structures to create different sounds.
    • Complexities of speech perception
      • Must identify one specific speech pattern from many to interpret meaning.
        • Ignore background noise and other people's speech
        • Ignore other sounds e.g. coughing and breathing
        • Identify sounds, make into syllables then words.
        • Fill in speech gaps caused by overlapping sounds and speakers.
        • Generalise knowledge of sounds to account for accents
        • Interpret speech sounds semantically to understand message presented.
      • Audio-visual integration (McGurk & Macdonald. 1976)
        • Vision can effect auditory perception
    • Parsing and Recognising
      • Ability to parse continuous speech sounds depends on prior knowledge, expectations and the context.
        • Reddy (1976) found parsing of words easier when ps knew the source, so could determine context.
      • Miller and Isard (1963) found words are most easily understood when they're meaningfully arranged.
      • Warren & Warren (1970) found ps correctly identified each 'eel' word in the sentences without any abnormality reported in speech. e.g. "the eel was on the car", "the eel was on the shoe".


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Cognitive development resources »