Specialised cells

Mindmap for specialised cells

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  • Created by: emily_w
  • Created on: 17-04-14 11:53
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  • Specialised Cells
    • Parts of an animal cell
      • nucleus
        • is NOT the brain of the cell
        • contains DNA/RNA
        • tells cell what to do
        • "control centre"
      • cell membrane
        • controls substances that move in and out of cell
        • flexible
      • cytoplasm
        • chemical reactions take place
        • enzymes live here
      • mitochondria
        • where respiration takes place
        • the mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell
      • ribosomes
        • where proteins are synthesised
    • Parts of a plant cell
      • cell wall
        • gives the cell its shape
        • strengthens cell
      • chloroplasts
        • contain chlorophyll
        • vital for photosynthesis because chlorophyll absorbs sunlight energy
        • make plant green
      • vacuole
        • filled with sap
        • keep cell turgid (swollen with water)
        • when the plant is dehydrated, they shrivel up and the plant withers
      • plant cells also have cell membranes, cytoplasms and nuclei
    • Stem cells
      • animal cells
      • did not become specialised in embryonic stage
      • can adapt into any kind of cell the body needs
      • useful in fighting diseases because of versatility
      • uses
        • fertility treatment
        • new brain cells for Parkinson's patients
        • rebuild damaged bones/cartilage
        • therapeutic cloning: patient's genes combined with an egg to make an embryo, stem cells taken from it.
    • Sperm cells
      • tail to swim to egg
      • carry chromosomes and other genetic information, combines with egg's info when fertilised
      • head of cell contains a Lysosome
        • releases enzymes for sperm to break into egg cell
      • small and thin so they can swim fast
    • Muscle cells
      • have to be further specialised depending on the muscle
      • skeletal muscles
        • control arms, legs ect
        • controlled by voluntary commands
      • smooth muscles
        • not controlled voluntarily
        • cardiac muscles ect
    • Bacteria
      • pathogens
      • microscopic: max 10 micrometres long
      • multiply extremely quickly
        • more difficult for antibiotics to kill
      • release toxins once inside the body, which makes us ill
      • bacterial diseases include toxic shock syndrome, salmonella, typhoid and cholera
    • Viruses
      • main type of pathogen (with bacteria)
      • smaller than bacteria, so easier for them to take over cells
      • genetic material inside protected by protien coat
      • hard to kill--not alive or dead and parasitic
      • hard to kill without killing the cells they take over
      • viral diseases include HIV/AIDS, flu, polio and rubella


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