BIOLOGY-SPECIALISED CELLS MINDMAP

The yellow information is the info that is important but easily forgotton and should be learnt with care!

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  • Created by: 15HussaA
  • Created on: 01-04-18 13:57
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  • Specialised cells - Biology
    • Plant cells
      • Cell Wall
        • Gives the cell extra strength and gives it its shape. It is filled with cellulose
      • Cell membrane
        • Is partially permeable and so controls what substances go in and out of the cell
      • Vacuole
        • Filled with cell sap to keep the cell swollen.
      • Chloroplasts/ chlorophyll
        • The chlorophyll inside of the chloroplasts gives the plant cells their green colour and enables Photosynthesis to take place within the leaves
      • Mitochondria
        • Provides energy for the cells and aids respiration.
      • Nucleus
        • Animal cells and plant cells are Eukaryotic which means they have a nucleus which contains the genetic information about a cell and controls it.
      • Cytoplasm
        • A jelly-like substance where chemical reactions occur and contains dissolved nutrients, salts and structures called organelles.
      • Ribosomes
        • Tiny organelles where protein synthesis occurs.
    • Animal cells
      • Cell membrane
        • Is partially permeable and so controls what substances go in and out of the cell
      • Mitochondria
        • UntitledProvides energy for the cells and aids respiration.
      • Nucleus
        • Animal cells and plant cells are Eukaryotic which means they have a nucleus which contains the genetic information about a cell and controls it.
      • Cytoplasm
        • A jelly-like substance where chemical reactions occur and contains dissolved nutrients, salts and structures called organelles.Untitled
      • Ribosomes
        • Tiny organelles where protein synthesis occurs.
    • Bacteria cells
      • Flaggellum
        • When present, transports and moves the bacterium along.
      • Chromosomal DNA
        • DNA of the cell found loose in the cytoplasm because bacteria cells are prokaryotic.
      • Plasmid DNA
        • Bacteria also have small, closed-circles of DNA called plasmids present in their cytoplasm. Unlike the chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA can move from one bacterium to another giving variation.
      • Cell wall
        • Unlike plant cells, Bacteria cell walls are not made from cellulose. They provide strength and structure for the cell.
      • Cytoplasm
        • A jelly-like substance where chemical reactions occur and contains dissolved nutrients, salts and structures called organelles.
      • Cell membrane
        • Is partially permeable and so controls what substances go in and out of the cell
    • Leaf cell
      • A type of plant cell that absorbs light energy for photosynthesis to occur.
        • Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.
    • Root hair cell
      • Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil.
        • Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.
    • Sperm cell
      • Fertilises an egg cell
        • The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg
    • Red Blood Cells
      • Contains Haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells
        • Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.

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