Biology B2 - Specialised Cells

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  • Specialised Cells
    • Palisade Leaf Cells
      • Adapted for photosynthesis
      • Packed with chloroplasts at the top of the cell where light reaches
      • Shape is tall which has a lot of surface area
        • Means the sides ae exposed to absorb CO2 from the air in leaf
      • Thin shape = loads can be pcked into leaf
    • Guard Cells
      • Kidney shaped that opens and closes the stomata (pores)in leaves
      • when plant is filed with water, cells fill and go turgid
        • Makes stomata open so gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis
      • When plants short of water they lose water and become flaccid - makes stomata close
      • Outer walls and inner thickened walls make it close and open
      • Sensitive to light and are closed at night
        • To save water without losing out on photosynthesis
        • Adapted to function of allowing gas exchange and waterloss
    • Red Blood Cells
      • Concave shape adapted to carry oxygen
      • Big surface area for absorbing oxygen and pass through capillaries smoothly
      • Packed with haemoglobin
      • They have no nucleus because they need more room for haemoglobin
    • Sperm and Egg Cells
      • Specialised for reproduction
      • Egg cell caries female DNA to nourish developing embryos
      • When sperm and egg fuse, cell wall changes to keep other sperm out
        • So there is the right amount of chromosomes in it
      • Sperm has long tail and streamline head to help it swim
        • Has enzymes in the head to help dissolve the eggs cell wall


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