B1.4-5 Specialisation in Plant and Animal Cells

  • Created by: Amber
  • Created on: 11-06-18 18:15
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  • Specialisation in Animal Cells
    • Specialisation in Plant Cells
      • Root hair cells are on the surface of plant roots, which grow into long "hairs". They help take up water and mineral ions for the plant.
        • Adaptations
          • Greatly increase surfacearea available for water to move into cell
          • Large permanent vacuole - speeds up osmosis from soil into the cell
          • Many mitochondria - transfer energy needed for active transport of mineral ions into cell.
      • Photosynthetic sells help the plant to absorb as much light needed for photosynthesis
        • Adaptations
          • Chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll that trap light needed for photosynthesis
          • Continous layers - maximises the light absorption
          • Large permanent vacuole - keeps cell rigid through osmosis
            • keeps leaf spread out to absorb light.
            • with photosynthetic tissue it keeps the stem supported
      • Xylem is the transport tissue in plants that carries water and mineral ions from the roots to the highest leaves and shoots.The xylem is also important in supporting the plant
        • Adaptations
          • Lignin builds up in cell walls and cells die. Long hollow tubes formed to allow water and mineral ions to move easily in plant.
          • Spirals and rings of lignin make them strong and able to withstand pressure of the water moving up plant.
      • Phloem is the specialised transport tissue that carries the food made by photosynthesis around the plant
        • Adaptations
          • Phloem cells form tubes but they do not die. Dissolved food moves up and down the tubes.
          • Cell walls between cells break to form sieve plates - water carrying dissolved food can move freely up and down tubes.
          • Mitochondria in companion cells transfer energy to make dissolved food move up and down.
    • Nerve cells- are specialised to carry electrical impulses around the body of an animal
      • Adaptations
        • Multiple dendrites - make connections to other nerve cells
        • Axon - carries nerve impulse from one place to another
        • Synapses - pass impulses between nerve cell and muscle cell in the body using special transmitter chemicals
    • Muscle cells are specialised cells that contract and relax
      • Adaptations
        • Special proteins - slide over each other making fibres contract
        • Mitochondria - transfer energy for chemical reactions as cells contract and relax
        • Glycogen storage - chemical broken down and used in cellular respiration by mitochondria to transfer energy needed for fibres to contract
    • Sperm cells need to get the genetic material from the male parent to the egg
      • Adaptations
        • Long tail - helps sperm to swim
        • Acrosome - stores digestive enzymes for breaking down egg
        • Nucleus - contains the genetic info to be passed on.
        • The middle section is full of mitochondria, which transfers energy needed for the tail to work.


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