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  • Created by: Jasmin
  • Created on: 23-01-14 10:33
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  • Solubility
    • If forces of attraction between the molecules of one liquid are stronger than the I.F between the molecules of 2 different liquids, then the liquids do not mix
    • Energy given out when new attractions form between the 2 liquids will be insufficient to overcome the neergy required to break the exisiting forces
    • E.g. halogenalkanes are insoluble in H2O because there is only weak interaction between H2O molecules and halogenalkane molecules (London forces and dipole-dipole interactions)
      • Energy released by these new interactions is not enough to break the strong H bonds, between H2O molecules
    • Solubility of ionic compounds in water
      • Energy required to overcome teh strong electrostatic forces in the ionic lattice and separate the ions is supplied by the energy released when polar H2O molecules are attracted to the ions
      • + ions are attracted to the S- O atoms in H2O molecules
        • Ions pulled away from lattice
      • - ions are attracted to the S+ H atoms
        • + ions are attracted to the S- O atoms in H2O molecules
          • Ions pulled away from lattice
      • Energy released is called hydration energy and the ions are said to be hydrated because they are surrounded by H2O molecules
      • Polar solvents - H2O - H2O molecules bind to each other with H bonds
      • Non polar solvents - Hexane - bond to each other by London forces
        • Diagram
    • Alcohols
      • Covalent but dissolve in water because polar O-H bonds in alcohol is attracted to polar O-H bond in water
      • H bonds form between the lone pairs on the S- O atom and S+ H atom
      • C chain part of alcohol is insoluble so more carbons, less soluble the alcohol will be


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