Solids, Liquids and Gases

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  • Solids, Liquids and Gases.
    • Solids
      • Particles are very close together
      • Particles are regularly arranged
      • Particles only vibrate in fixed positions
      • Particles are held together by very strong forces of attraction
      • Have a fixed shape
      • Have a fixed volume
      • Cannot be compressed
      • Does not flow
    • Liquids
      • Particles are very close together
      • Particles are randomly arranged
      • Particles move around each other
      • Particles are held together by strong forces of attraction
      • Take the shape of the container (no fixed shape)
      • Have a fixed volume
      • Cannot be compressed
      • Flows
    • Gases
      • Particles are far apart
      • Particles are randomly arranged
      • Particles move quickly in all directions
      • Particles are held together by very weak forces of attraction
      • Fill the container (no fixed shape)
      • Have a changeable volume
      • Can be compressed
      • Flows
    • Diffusion
      • Diffusion is the spreading out of liquid and gas particles to fill the available space
      • Particles move from a high concentration to a low concentration
      • Solid particles do not diffuse because they do not move out of position
      • Gas particles diffuse quicker than liquid particles because the particles move faster and are already more spread out
      • A  volatile fluid is one that readily evaporates
    • Endothermic
      • A  reaction which takes in energy making the reaction mixture colder
      • Melting, boiling and sublimation
    • Exothermic
      • A reaction which gives out energy making the reaction mixture hotter
      • Deposition, freezng and condensing
    • Distillation
      • Distillation can be used to obtain pure solvent from a solution or to separate different liquids from each other
      • Distillation uses two changes of state, first the liquid is boiled and then the gas is condensed
      • The cold water pushed   into the condenser provides a cold jacket around the innertube
      • Energy from the gas particles that travel through the inner tube passes to the surrounding cold water as energy is given out so that forces of attraction between the particles are reformed, changing the particles back into a liquid state
      • Distillation is very expensive to carry out due to the high cost of energy used for both heating and cooling
    • Expansion and Contraction
      • When solids and liquids get hotter, they expand because the particles move further apart
      • When they cool they contract because the particles become closer together
    • Filtration
      • A mixture of a liquid and a solid is poured through filter paper which is full of tiny holes.
      • The large, solid particles are too big to go through and are left in the paper, but the smaller particles go through. This separates the solid and the liquid.
    • Chromatogaphy
      • In chromatography, the solutes, which all have different sized particles, move at different speeds across filter paper
      • Coloured inks are solutions made from several solutes with different colours dissolved in a single solvent.

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