Soil formation

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  • Soil formation
    • Parent material
      • Minerals forming the basis of soil
        • They are produced from rocks  through the processes of weathering and natural erosion.
    • Living organisms
      • Influencing soil formation
        • Animals eat plants and their wastes and eventually their bodies are added to the soil.
          • Bacteria, fungi, worms and other burrowers break down plant litter and animal wastes and remains, to eventually become organic matter.
    • Topography
      • Grade of slope affecting drainage, erosion and deposition
        • The aspect of a slope determines the type of vegetation and indicates the amount of rainfall received
    • Climate
      • Affecting the rate of weathering and organic decomposition
        • Rainfall dissolves some of the soil materials and holds others in suspension. The water carries or leaches these materials down through the soil
    • Time
      • influencing soil properties.
        • Soil properties may vary depending on how long the soil has been weathered.


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