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  • Software
    • Utility programs
      • Disc Defragmentation
        • Rearranges the data on a hard disc so that all a data is stored together and it becomes quicker to access the files
      • Backup
        • A second copy of a file made and stored on a storage device in case the original file gets lost, or becomes corrupted or physically damaged
      • Task scheduling
        • Processor time is divided amongst a number of tasks. Uses time slices. Implemented using the round robin method.
    • Application software- programs designed for a end user to do a particular task.
    • System software-includes the operating system and all utility programs that enable the computer to operate its hardware and application software.
      • Allocating memory
        • Organises the main memory between programs and data files as they are transferred to and from the hard disc
      • Storage
        • The  operating system manages the storage of data and files on a external devices.
      • Processing time
        • Allocates processing time between the programs that are currently in use by dividing the time into a number of time slices and, depending on the priority of the tasks to be processed, each task is allocated a number of time slices.
    • Modes of processing
      • Real time processing
        • data  is processed immediately after it is inputted
        • Data flies are updated before the next transaction takes place
        • Out put generated is processed quickly enough to influence the next input received enough rot
        • Air traffic control
      • Batch processing
        • Involves collecting groups of similar data over a period of tome
        • Data isimput to a computer system at an off peak time without any human involvement.
        • This type of processing suits application where data does not have to be processed immediately
        • Billing systems
      • Multi-user  system
        • Involves many users at different computers sharing the same processor
          • Applications that make use of multi user systems include multiuser database management systems .
        • Works by the operating system switching at high speed between the compurters, giving each one in turn a small amount of processor time known as a time slice
    • Anti virus  software
      • Software that scans flies stored on a computer system, looking for a virus, and compares these to a known database of viruses; it can eliminate a virus


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