PSYCHOLOGY UNIT1 STEREOTYPING

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  • STEREOTYPING
    • STEROTYPING: oversimplified, generalised set of ideas that we have about others
      • Negative and positive stereotypes
        • Can stop us from seeing real person e.g. gealousy
        • Remember info about people e.g. friends
        • Promote harmful pictures e.g. I am not white trash
        • Enable us to respond appropriately e.g. first day of college
    • DISCRIMINATION: Treat someone differently because they belong to a certain group
      • GENDER DISCRIMINATION(NEGATIVE):Women often discriminated against in a work place me discriminated against in the home.
      • RACIAL DISCRIMINATION(POSITIVE): Top business starts to employ other ethnicities as satff are 80% Japanese-UK summer training camp recruits from other countries.
      • SOCIAL IDENTITY: TAJFEL
        • RESULTS: Awarded points choosing pairings that created biggest difference between the groups.
        • METHOD: 15-15year olds. 2Groups given a game- award pairs of points. told points could be swapped for prizzes
        • CONCLUSION: discriminate members of the out-group
        • AIM: Shows how easily people discriminate against there out groups
      • CREATING EMPATHY: ELLIOT
        • RESULTS: Behave according to stereotype. Children told that they were better- were more dominant, produced better work an treated blue eyed badly. 9years later: 18years old-more tolerant an more opposed to prejudice.
        • METHOD: Day 1: 2groups. blue eyed and brown eyed. Blue eyed better and more intelligent than brown eyed people they wore collars. Day 2: They swapped roles. Day 3: told there were no differences between each other.
        • CONCLUSION: Effective of reducing prejudice in the long term
        • AIM: Making people feel discriminated against-stop discriminating in future.
    • PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH IN TO REDUCINGPREJUDICE
      • ELLIOT
        • BENIFITS: works well on young children
        • IMPLICATION OF REAL LIFE: made to feel the negative effects
        • DRAWBACKS: ethical reasons
      • ARONSON
        • BENIFITS: easy to do in certain settings
        • IMPLICATION OF REAL LIFE: different races should work together in groups
        • DRAWBACKS: Not easy to do in all settings
      • HARWOOD
        • BENIFITS: works well with young children
        • IMPLICATION OF REAL LIFE: regular contact
        • DRAWBACKS: not always possible
      • SHERIF
        • BENEFITS: useful if tasks in community that need groups help
        • IMPLICATION OF REAL LIFE: should work together on shared task
        • DRAWBACKS: Doesn't work if no tasks to do
    • PREJUDICE: General attitude about a person or group of people based on characteristics that are members of a group
      • RACIAL PRJUDICE(POSITIVE): Japanese people are skilled, Chinese best at martial arts.
      • GENDER PREJUDICE (NEGATIVE): Women not efficient in high powered jobs, men not capable of parenting
      • AUTHHORITARIAN PERSONALITY: ADORNO ET AL
        • RESULTS: Particular pattern of personality characteristics they called it authoritarian personality
        • Method: Interviewed hundreds using F-SCALE(FASCIST)Measure responses to a series of questions.
        • CONCLUSION: People with it are more likely to be prejudiced to others
        • AIM: idea certain types of personality more likely to be prejudices
      • INTER-GROUP CONFLICT THEORY: SHERIF ET AL- ROBBERS CAVE
        • AIM: Prejudice develops-groups in competition for scarce resources
        • METHOD:12year old boys. summer camp. 22boys. put in 2 separate groups- didn't know other group existed. given time to settle in to form group identity. competitions were set up between the two groups.
      • RESULTS: dislike very quickly began to fight. More aggressive boys became leaders.
      • CONCLUSION: Competition brings people together, encourages them to be prejudiced
      • REDUCING PREJUDICE
        • CO-OPERATION TECHNIQUE: SHERIF
          • RESULTS: After several tasks conflict disappeared. several boys became good friends from each group.
          • METHOD:Boys at robbers camp-pull truck back to camp for lunch time. They had to work as one big group.
          • CONCLUSION: Reduced inter-group conflict
          • AIM: Co-operation strategies help to reduce prejudice
        • JIGSAW TECHNIQUE: ARONSON
          • RESULTS: positive perceptions of those in their group that were from racial groups. stereotypes of other racial groups thought people in their group were exceptions to the rule.
          • METHOD: Racially mixed students- work together and present work to rest of class.
          • CONCLUSION: break down some racial stereotypes but new attitudes not applied to different settings.
          • AIM: Working with different races helps reduce prejudice.
      • INCREASING CONTACT: HARWOOD
        • RESULTS: Regular contact with their grandparents helpd more positive views.
        • METHOD: Children interviewed and asked their relationships. Asked their views on elderly people
        • CONCLUSION: contact with grandparent can reduce prejudice
        • AIM: If prejudice towards the elderly is reduced when the amount of contact is increased

Comments

MrsMacLean

A very informative mind map which includes outlines of key studies, strengths and weaknesses!

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