Sociology A Level - Inequality

Mindmap of:

Evidence of Inequality

Theories of Inequality - E.g. Marxism, Feminism etc

Research Methods

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  • SOCIOLOGY
    • THEORIES
      • FEMINISM
        • Horizontal Segregation: Men and women located in different sorts of occupations
          • Benyon: Feminisation of the workforce - decline in industry has been very damaging to the male working class
            • Mac & Ghaill - hegemonic masculinity - crisis of masculinity
          • Reserve Army of Labour - provide cheap labour during times of economics growth and are disposed of during recession
            • Beechey - Accepts this does not explain horizontal inequality
              • Bruegal - Capitalism benefits from free domestic labour in the home          .
        • Stanko: 1/3 of violent acts are committed by men against female partners
        • Vertical Segregation: Men and women employed at different levels of power and pay
          • Benyon: Feminisation of the workforce - decline in industry has been very damaging to the male working class
            • Mac & Ghaill - hegemonic masculinity - crisis of masculinity
          • Post-Mordist Theory - Society moved away from mass production, businesses require high-skilled workers and some flexbile part-time workers.
          • Benston - Male wages pay for two
        • Pahl; Men control the finances with families
        • Ann Oakley: Mother-Housewife role has been responsible for the subordination of women in the workforce.
          • Vertical Segregation: Men and women employed at different levels of power and pay
            • Post-Mordist Theory - Society moved away from mass production, businesses require high-skilled workers and some flexbile part-time workers.
            • Benston - Male wages pay for two
        • Duncombe & Marsden: Women bare the brunt of domestic and emotional work in families
          • Dual Burden
          • Women experience a Triple Shift
        • Barron & Norris: Dual Labour Market - Inequality is rooted in the divided labour market  - women in secondary labour market
          • Horizontal Segregation: Men and women located in different sorts of occupations
            • Reserve Army of Labour - provide cheap labour during times of economics growth and are disposed of during recession
              • Beechey - Accepts this does not explain horizontal inequality
                • Bruegal - Capitalism benefits from free domestic labour in the home          .
        • Braverman: Women used to replace skilled male workers in the deskilling of the workforce
        • Walby - Triple System Theory
          • Subordination - Patriarchal institutions
          • Oppression: Men discriminate due to stereotypes
          • Exploitation: E.g. Housework
        • Fran Ansley - 'Takers of shit'
          • Soak up frustrations of men
        • Reductionist Theory - Reduce the explanation of inequality to one variable, often taking no account of other important variables
        • Catherine Hakim - Rational Choice Theory
          • KEY TERMS
            • Conflict Theory
            • Patriarchy
            • The Glass Ceiling
            • Male-stream Research
            • Triple Shift
            • Dual Burden
        • FUNCTIONALISM
          • Davis & Moore - Role Allocation
            • Also said  inequality is universal and inevitable
          • KEY TERMS
            • Consensus Theory
            • Structural Theory
            • Meritocracy
            • Achieved and Ascribed status
              • Social Mobility
            • Anomie (Durkheim)
            • The American Dream
          • Talcott Parsons - Social solidarity and social cohesion
          • 4 Functional Prerequisites
            • Adaptation
              • Economic Function
            • Goal Attainment
              • Politics
              • Intergration
                • Social
                • Latency
                  • Beliefs & Values
          • Peter Saunders: Longitudinal study with 6800 results -  Occupational status closely linked to hard work
          • Kendall et al - Functionalists ignore other social factors e.g. discrimination
          • Saunders -ConsumptionCleavage - Social re-stratification separating those who satisfy their needs and those who don't e.g. private schools etc
            • Peter Saunders: Longitudinal study with 6800 results -  Occupational status closely linked to hard work
        • NEW RIGHT
          • Charles Murray - Underclass Theory
            • Culture of Welfare dependency
            • Culture of Criminality
            • Tax Avoidance cost the tax payer £13 billion a year
          • 3 Principles of the New Right
            • 1. Inequality is Inevitable
              • 2. Market Liberlaism
                • 3. Philosophy of Choice
          • Reagan & Thatcher - Washington Consensus Era
            • Trickle Down Theory - Arthur Laffer
            • Abolished capital gains tax & increased VAT
          • David Saunders - Belief that if you cut benefits it will encourage self-reliance
        • MARXISM
          • Key Terms
            • Superstructure & Base
            • Relations and Means of production
            • False Class Concioussness
            • Conflict Theory
            • Economic Determinism
            • Bourgeoisie & Proletariat
          • Gramsci - Hegemony - Norms and values of the ruling class become the norm for all of society
          • Althusser - Ideological and Repressive state apparatus
          • Marxism& Politics
          • B & P are two classes that are independent of one another but their interest never coincide
          • Karl Marx Theory of Alienation
          • NEO-MARXISTS
            • 3 Classes: Bourgeoisie, Intermediary class and Proletariat
            • Take into account social and intellectual factors
          • Class Conflict  - created due to the surplus profit being made by firms at the expense of the employees
            • Marx predicted the two classes would polarise and the workers would become increasingly immiserised (poor)
        • WEBERIANISM
          • Economics Determinism - Agreed with Marx that those who owned the means of production played an important part
          • Class is determined by market situation
            • In turn this affects
              • Life Chances
          • Life Chances
          • Key Terms
            • Life Chances
            • Critical Theory
          • 3 Areas of Stratification
            • Class Power - Economic Power
              • Social Power - Status & Prestige
                • Party Power - Political
          • Structure of Society
            • 1. Dominant property owners and commercial class
              • 2. White collar intelligentsia
                • 3. Petty Bourgouisie
                  • 4. Manual Working class
          • NEO-WEBERIANISM
            • John Goldthorpe - Belief that there are 7 classes - within 3 social classes
              • Created the NS-SEC - Government Occupational Scale
              • Neglectful of the role of women
              • Service Class - Intermediate Class - Working Class
          • Anthony Giddens -Inequality due to social exclusion more than income poverty
        • POST-MODERNISM
          • Key Terms
            • Subjective  Theory
            • Consumerism
            • Don't believe in Meta-narratives (big stories) e.g. Christianity
            • Globalisation
            • Pluralistic Society
            • Media saturated society
          • Lyotard - No set norms and values in todays society
          • Westergaard - Ignore gap between rich and poor
          • Pakulski & Waters - Death of class
            • Economic Society - Heirarchal Society - Status Society
          • Baudrillard - No knowledge can assumed to be right
          • Hebdige - People now create their identity/status through what they buy and consume
      • EVIDENCE FOR INEQUALITY
        • GENDER
          • 2001 Labour Force Survey: 90% of nurses and 88% of hairdressers are female
          • ONS: 44% of women employed are part-time
          • Joseph Rowntree Report: Most top paid jobs are held by men
          • Equal Pay Act 1970
          • Sex Discrimination Act 1975
      • RESEARCH METHODS
        • Quantitative
          • Reliable
            • Large Samples
              • Closed Questions
          • Generalisable
          • Less Valid
        • Qualitative
          • Valid
            • First hand experience
              • Risk of going native
            • Less Generalisable
              • Often more expensive
                • Build a rapport
          • Time Consuming
          • Anti-Positivist
        • Key Terms
          • Covert & Overt
            • Primary & Secondary data
              • Triangulation/Methodological Pluralism
          • Hawthorne Effect
            • Imposition Problem
              • Closed Questions
                • Participant and non-participant observation
    • Globalisation
    • RESEARCH METHODS
      • Quantitative
        • Reliable
          • Large Samples
            • Closed Questions
        • Generalisable
        • Less Valid
      • Qualitative
        • Valid
          • First hand experience
            • Risk of going native
          • Less Generalisable
            • Often more expensive
              • Build a rapport
        • Time Consuming
        • Anti-Positivist
      • Key Terms
        • Covert & Overt
          • Primary & Secondary data
            • Triangulation/Methodological Pluralism
        • Hawthorne Effect
          • Imposition Problem
            • Closed Questions
              • Participant and non-participant observation

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