Sociology- Migration

  • Created by: Daisymac
  • Created on: 13-03-19 14:54
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  • Migration
    • What?
      • immigration- Refers to movement into a society
      • Emigration- Refers to movement out
      • Net migration- The difference between the numbers of immigrants and the number of emigrants
    • Immigration
      • From1900- WW2 1939, the largest immigrant group were the Irish,followed by Eastern and Central European Jews
        • Very few immigrants were non-white
      • During the 50s, black immigrants from the Caribbean began to arrive in the UK
      • 60s and 70s= South Asian immigrants from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
      • By 2011, ethnic minority groups accounted for 14% of the population
      • A series of immigration and nationality acts from 1962 to 1990 placed severe restrictions on non-white immigration
    • Emigration
      • From 16th c until 1980s, the UK was almost always a net exporter of people
      • Since 1900s, emigrants have gone to USA,Canada,Australia,New Zealand and South Africa
      • Push factors such as economic recession and unemployment at home
      • Pull factors such as higher wages or better opportunities abroad
    • The impact of migration on UK population structure
      • Population size- The UK population is currently growing, partly as a result of immigration
      • Net migration is high- More immigrants than emigrants
      • Births exceeding deaths-- Births to UK mothers remain low, births no non uk born mothers are higher and account for 25% of all births
      • Age structure- Immigration lowers the average age of the population both directly and indirectly
        • Directly- Immigrants are generally younger
        • Indirectly- Being younger,immigrants are more fertile and have more babies
      • The dependency ratio
        • Immigrants are more likely to be of working age and this helps lower the dependency ratio  and many older migrants return to their country of origin
        • As the immigrants are younger they are more likely to have children thus increasing the ratio
        • The longer a group is settled in the country, the closer their fertility rate comes to the the national average, reducing their overall impact on the dependency ratio

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