Sociology- Globalization and migration

  • Created by: Daisymac
  • Created on: 13-03-19 14:54
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  • Globalization and migration
    • What?
      • Idea that barriers between societies are disappearing and people are becoming increasingly interconnected across national barriers
      • Seen as producing rapid social change
    • Acceleration
      • Speeding up of the rate of migration
      • EG, according to the United nations 2013 between 2000 an 2013 international migration increased by 33%
    • Differentiation
      • Permanent settlers,temporary workers,spouses and forced migrants
      • Globalisation is increasing the diversity of types of migrant
      • Before the 1990s, immigration to the UK came from a fairly narrow range of former British colonies
      • Before the 1990s, immigration to the UK  came from a narrow range of former British colonies
      • Since the 1990s, globalization has led to what Vertovec 2007 calls super-diversity--> Migrants come from a wider range of countries
      • Cohen 2006 distinguishes 3 types of migrant
        • Citizens-- With full citizen rights
        • Denizens-- Privileged foreign nationals welcomed by the state
        • Helots- They are found in unskilled,poorly paid work and include illegally trafficked workers
    • The feminisation of migration
      • Almost half of all global migrants are female
      • Globalization of gender division-- Female migrants find they are fitted into patriarchal stereotypes about women's roles as careers or providers o sexual services
      • Ehrenreich and Hochschild 2003 observe that care work, domestic work and sex work in western countries are increasingly done by women
        • Expansion of service occupations in western countries= Demand for female labour
        • Western women joined labour force and less willing to perform domestic labour
        • Western men unwilling to perform domestic labour
        • Failure of state to provide good childcare
      • Shutes 2011 reports that 40% of adult care nurses in the UK are migrants are female
      • Migrant women also enter western counties as mail order brides which reflects gendered and racialised stereotypes
    • Migrant identities
      • For migrants, their country of origin may provide an additional or alternative source of identity
      • Eg. May develop hybrid identities made up of 2 or more sources
      • Eade 1994 found that second generation Bangladeshi Muslims in Britain created hierarchical identities
        • They saw themselves as Muslin first, then Bengali, then British
    • Transnational identities
      • Eriksen 2007 argues globalisation has created more diverse migration patterns, with back and forth movements of people through networks
      • Migrants are less likely to see themselves as belonging completely to one culture or country
      • Globalised economy = Migrants have more links to other migrants around the world
    • The politicisation of migration
      • Migration has become an important political issue
      • Policies that control immigration, absorb migrants into society and deal with increased diversity
      • Assimilation- First state policy approach to immigration. Aimed to encourage immigrants to adopt the language,values of the host culture
        • Transnational migrants may not want to abandon their culture
      • Multiculturalism- Accepts migrants may want to keep their cultural identity but this may be superficial
        • Shallow diversity- Eg regarding Tikka masala as Britain's national dish
        • Deep diversity - Such as arranged marriages no being acceptable of the state
        • Critics argue multicultural educational policies creates shallow diversity
      • Since 9/11 politicians have gone back to assimilation
      • Castles 2000 argues that assimilation policies are counterproductive as they mark out minority groups as culturally backwards
      • Assimulationist ideas may also encourage workers to blame workers for social problems
        • Castles and Kosack 1973 argue that this benefits capitalism by creating a racially divided working class and preventing united action in defence of their  interests

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