Sociology perspectives and social policies

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  • Created by: ecotts
  • Created on: 31-03-18 14:02
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  • Sociological perspectives and social policies
    • Functionalism
      • Role of sociology
        • Positivist view sociology as a science
          • through scientific research they can discover both problems & solutions to society
        • it is to provide the state with objective informations that can be used to based policies on
          • EXAMPLE; Durkhiems research led to him proposing an education system based on merit and abolition of inherited wealth
            • he said this would lead to a more cohesive society
      • relationship between sociology and social policy
        • The state serves the interests of society as a whole
          • They would produce social policies that were for the good of all
        • The policies help run more smoothly and efficiently
          • EXAMPLE
            • Educational policies that promote equal opportunities
        • they tend to look at one issue at a time
          • 'Piecemeal social engineering'
      • Criticisms
        • Marxist criticise the piecemeal approach
          • issues in wider society need to be tackled before specific issues can be addressed
          • EXAMPLE
            • You need take bigger problems of inequality in society and bring change before you can produce policies that equalising opportunities
      • Society is based on value consensus; free from conflict
    • Marxism
      • see society as divided by a  conflict which the ruling capitalist class exploit the labour of the working class
      • Role of the state
        • the state represent the ruling class and its social policies protect capitalism not society
        • they legitimised the ideological by providing the welfare state, this helps to mask capitalism by making it seem like they care
        • maintains the labour force for further exploitation
      • relationship between sociology and social policy
        • They see reports like the Black report are easily buried by capitalism
        • they will not carry out such recommendations as they put profits before human needs
      • Role of the sociologist
        • It is to critsice social policy & revel the exploitation that under pins capitalism
          • they way the ruling class uses social policies to mask this exfoliation and prevent a revolution through minor concessions
      • Cristicims
        • Their view is impractical & unrealistic
          • Social democrats criticise them for rejecting the idea that sociological research can bring change in a capitalist society
    • Feminism
      • They see society as based on conflict between gender rather than class
        • They see society based on patriarchy benefitting men at women's expense
      • Role of the state
        • The state perpetuates women subordination through their social policies
          • EXAMPLE
            • The state based its policies on the nuclear family so offers benefits to married couples not cohabitating
              • which makes it difficult for other kinds of families
      • Relationship between sociology and social policy
        • they see their research as having an impact in education, having seen changes in the images of female in teaching material
          • it is now positive which teacher training not being gender bias etc
        • Feminist movement has also had an impact of policies for equality
          • Sex discrimination act and equal pay act
      • Critisms
        • Marxist and radical feminist say that society needs far-reaching changes that the existing state cannot achieve
          • They reject the idea that change in the law can liberate women
    • The New Right
      • Role of the state
        • The state should have minimal involvement with society
          • They are opposed to the states involvement with the family, education and health
          • They feel that this takes away peoples choices and takes away their feelings of responsibility
      • Relationship between sociology and social policy
        • Sociologist have to come up with new policies that will restore the responsibility that the welfare state has taken
        • they see that social policies enable people to help themselves rather than have a welfare stage to do it for them
      • criticisms
        • The quality of data used in studies have been questioned
        • They have also been criticised for not using sociological studies but politically biased ones
          • EXAMPLE
            • They study breakdown Britain was produced by a think tank set up by Iain Duncan Smith a former leader of the Tori party

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