IB psychology- Sociocultural LoA (only SAQ)

All the learning outcomes for sociocultural level of analysis. However, only with 1 study and one examples etc. as I will not use this LoA for essays.

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  • Sociocultural LoA
    • LO2: Support of principles
    • LO3: Research Methods
    • LO5: Sit and disp- Behavior
      • Situational: It is the situation, hence external factors, that cause a behavior
        • Milgram study: aim: Investigate obedience to authority figure (Asch) procedure: ppts assigned to a learner role, after being told study is about learning methods. Give electric shoch if confederate answers wrong. Dont stop until we say so. Results: 65% went ahead to the strongest electrical shock, even though they were nervous and did not want to do so.
          • Nervousness: Did not want to continue, but did because told so -> broke own moral codes= not internal/dispositional ->situational factors influencing behaviour
          • LO2: Support of principles
          • LO4: Ethical Considerations
      • Dispositional: It is the internal factors causing behavior
        • Milgram study: aim: Investigate obedience to authority figure (Asch) procedure: ppts assigned to a learner role, after being told study is about learning methods. Give electric shoch if confederate answers wrong. Dont stop until we say so. Results: 65% went ahead to the strongest electrical shock, even though they were nervous and did not want to do so.
          • Nervousness: Did not want to continue, but did because told so -> broke own moral codes= not internal/dispositional ->situational factors influencing behaviour
          • LO4: Ethical Considerations
    • LO6: Errors in attributions
      • Attribution: Explanation of behavior
        • FAE: The tendency to make internal, dispostional factors to explain others behavior when external (sit) are more accurate
          • Aim: Investigate attributions made about someones attitudes procedure: ppts asked to write a essay about Raol Castro, even being pro, against or choose themselves. Then people read essay and were to estimate the true attitudes of author results: no attention payed to essay question -> attitudes were given to be same as essay
    • LO 7: SIT
      • SIT: Categorizing into IG and OG, in order to improve self-esteem Tajfel:
        • Tajfel aim: to see if randomly assigned social IG will establish IG favorism. procedure: school boys were randomly assigned into two distinct group. They then had to estimate number of dots on a picture, after which they were supposedly arranged into the over/underestimation group (no lnk to actual result). Then boys got to give money to people in group. Results: The ppts from IG received more awards than OG.
          • LO3: Research Methods
    • LO8: Stereotypes
      • Social perception of an individual in terms of group membership or physical attributes. Gerneralization that is made about a group and then attributed to all members.
        • Formation: Schemas (mental shortcuts), SIT, illusury correlations: we see correlations even though theres not- look for them,
          • Hamilton and Gifford. aim: how stereotypes are formed from imaginary groups. Procedure: Undergraduates rated desirability of certain description. These description were then used in situation describing a person from group A or B, where group a was bigger. The proportion of +/- was same in both groups. Partcipants then were asked to tell whetehr a describtion happened with A or B, or how many the statement occured with A or B. Results: Undeserible was overestimated for group B,
        • Effects: conformity bias: look for things to confirm our stereotypes and therefore overloook important things. Fromations of PREJUDGEMENTS, exaggeration: of perceived similarities wihtin groups justification of discrimination
          • Corell aim:investigate how unambigious situation make us act on stereotype procedure: ppts played a computergame and were to decide as fast as possible whether a man held a gun or a wallet. The target was either white or african american. reaction rate was also measured. Results: unarmed targets had higher rxn rate, but colour had no effect oon rate. More errprs made for unarmed black ppl.
            • Confirms that conformity bias has an effect. Having negative stereotypes or expect neg. behavior causes us to look for it.
    • LO9: SLT
      • Bandura: We learn behvaior from experience but aksi by observing models.  There are four processes incolved to imitate behavior: 1. Attention- looking at model 2.Retention- remembering actions. 3. reproduction- having capability to imitatet 4. Motivation (award/punished)
        • Bandura- Aim: Investigate if children will imitate agressive model and affect of gender. procedure: children assigned into groups based on gender and agressivness (observed in nursury school). Children were brought to room with model, were they played for 10 min. Then into other room were child was not suppose to play -> frustration. in 3rd room child was obeseerved by blinded observers and agressive beh. recorded. Results: Boys more agressive. Agressive model more agressive play.
          • Showed that if no punishment, children imitate. model drew attention to herself, so 1st criteria fullfilled.
    • LO10: Compliance techniques
      • Compliance:  social influence with reuest from one person to another. Techniques is ways in which we are influenced to comply. Door-in-face: likelyhood to accept 2nd request, as the pesron has lowered their requst to accomodate them.
        • Millar: aim: effect of DIFT and effect of the benefactor. procedure: studetns asked to keep record of his/her meals for moth. Then lowered to only 4 days. 1 condition: first big then small, 2: only small. IVF2: researcher, ppts or organizatuin benefactor. Results: The 1st conditon was more likely to comply. Verbal and behavioral compliance differed: many agreed but didnt send recording.
          • Supports the DIFT technique. HAs to do with reciprocy- comply with people who have done you favor (lowered request).
    • LO11: Conformity to norms
      • How we adjust our values, behaviors etc in order to match those around us
        • LO12: Conformity factors
          • Factors: group size, why conform-information (ambigious, normative (follow grop norms), culture, unaminity (having ally, or someone else not agreeing),
            • Bond and smith. Aim: see if there are crosscultural factors influencing conformity. conformity: meta-analysis with studies using Aschs study.  Results: bigger group meant more conformity, females more likely to congform, if more ambigious task confomrity increased (information), time also was a factor- older stuied showed more conformity. Collectivistic cultural conformed more
              • Asch Aim: can perceived group pressure by majority influence someone in a non.ambigious situation procedure: 6 confederates and 1 participants were placed around a table. They were asked to compare lengths of 3 lines with a standard line, indicationg which of the three matched. 1st CF gave right answer, but after while they all gave the same, wrong answer. Results: the participant confromed with the group in most of the cases.
                • Showed that we are likely to conform even in non-ambigious sitatuation, following the group, adjusting our answers to theirs.+control so cause and effectcan be established +have been replicated, and gave bith to studys in confomity -labratory- ecological validity -male students in US so generalization -only how majority influence minotity -decpetion and stressfull
                • Bond and smith. Aim: see if there are crosscultural factors influencing conformity. conformity: meta-analysis with studies using Aschs study.  Results: bigger group meant more conformity, females more likely to congform, if more ambigious task confomrity increased (information), time also was a factor- older stuied showed more conformity. Collectivistic cultural conformed more
                • How we adjust our values, behaviors etc in order to match those around us
                  • LO12: Conformity factors
                    • Factors: group size, why conform-information (ambigious, normative (follow grop norms), culture, unaminity (having ally, or someone else not agreeing),
                      • Asch Aim: can perceived group pressure by majority influence someone in a non.ambigious situation procedure: 6 confederates and 1 participants were placed around a table. They were asked to compare lengths of 3 lines with a standard line, indicationg which of the three matched. 1st CF gave right answer, but after while they all gave the same, wrong answer. Results: the participant confromed with the group in most of the cases.
                        • Showed that we are likely to conform even in non-ambigious sitatuation, following the group, adjusting our answers to theirs.+control so cause and effectcan be established +have been replicated, and gave bith to studys in confomity -labratory- ecological validity -male students in US so generalization -only how majority influence minotity -decpetion and stressfull
                  • Norms: We want to belong to the group
                    • LO11: Conformity to norms
              • Norms: We want to belong to the group
            • LO13: culture and norms
            • LO14: Cultural dimensions
              • cultural dimensions: an aspect of a cultural that can be measured relative to other cultures. Include 4 dimenstions: individualism, masculinity, power distance and uncertainty avoidance.
                • Looking at Bond and smith, it was shown that collectivistiv culutres have a higher compliance then individualistic culturess.
              • LO15: Emic and epic
                • Emic: Insider perspective from valid point of view from subjetcs.
                • Etic: Outsider perspective from valid point of view from researchers

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