IB psychology sociocultural approach

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  • Sociocultural approach
    • individuals and group
      • social identity theory
        • social categorisation
          • in- groups and out-group
          • in-group homogeneity or reduced variability within the in-gorup
        • social comparison
          • individual favourably compares their in-groups with out-groups
        • positive distinctiveness
          • motivation to show that an in-group is preferable to an out-group
          • establishing the superiority of an in-groups over relevant out-groups
        • social idenification
          • identifies strongly with in-group
        • Tajfel (1970)
          • Investigate the minimal conditions under which discrimination between social groups could be brought about
            • participants were divided into two groups(two artist) and give points to each artist.
            • As results Participants will choice their own group. This is evidence of social categorisation when the participants chosen their own group (in-group) instead of the out-group.
        • Dobbs and Crano 2001
          • Investigate factors that affect minimal group paradigm-based discrimination
            • used a minimal groups study and asked people to justify their in-group favouritism,
    • culture, behaviour and cognition
      • cultural dimensions
        • individualism vs collectivism
          • Individualism
            • privileges the individual interest over the group -  "I"
          • collectivism
            • a society, culture or an economy that values groups over individual interests
          • Berry (1967)
            • Investigate whether rates of conformity were higher in individualist or collectivist cultures
            • two societies with subsistence-level economies, applied the Ash paradigm to both groups.
            • showed that conformity was higher in more collectivist culture.
      • enculturation
        • the gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person, another culture etc
        • shaped personal identity
        • process through which we learn about the culture we live in
      • Acculturation
        • assimilate to a different culture, typically the dominant one
        • Mullen (1994)
          • study earliest memories in three different cultural groups
          • questionnaires were used to investigate earliest memory, participants are from three cultural groups (caucasian, asian and asian-american)
          • earliest memories for asian and asian-american on average six months later than caucasian
        • Berry's model
          • assimilation
            • abandoning one's own culture
          • integration (both)
            • keep old and take on new
          • separation
            • minimal contact
          • marginalistion
            • exclusion/ being exclusedm not able to maintain own culture

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