Social Psychological Explanations

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Social Psychological Explanations
    • Social Learning Theory
      • Vicarious learning
        • Learn effective behaviour and display
      • More likely to be imitated if
        • Admires or identifies with observed
        • Similar age
        • Positive reinforcement
      • Requires following conditions
        • Attention - must attend to behaviour
        • Retention - if worth doing needs to be put in LTM
        • Production - physically capable
        • Motivation - through positive reinforcement
      • Support
        • Bandura - 3 to 5 year olds shown aggressive and non aggressive behaviour
        • Bandura and Walters - Children given motivation to model aggressive behaviour
        • Bandura and Walters - Offered rewards this time for performing behaviour, same amounts of imitative acts
        • Phillips - Higher homicide rates after boxing match
        • Explains imitation in absence of direct reinforcement, explains individual differences = perceived, high reliability
        • Cultural differences - !Kung San do not reward aggression and are not aggressive = absence of model and learning = no agression
      • Issues
        • Lacks ecological validity - artificial envrionment, Bobo doll meant to be hit
          • Repeated on clown
        • Demand characteristics - fulfilling expectation
          • More non modelled aggression in experimental
        • Reductionist- Flanagan suggests testosterone most important
    • Deindividuation
      • Psychological state where in a group normal restraints on behaviour are weakened
      • Situations that encourage it
        • Being in a crowd - less identifiable, loss of individuality and self awareness
        • Anonymity - faceless, non accountable
        • Uniform - anonymity
        • Drugs and alcohol - loss of inhibitions
      • Support
        • Zimbardo - deinviduated condition shocked for twice as long
        • Rehm et al - schoolchildren in orange shirts more aggressive
        • Mullen - More savagery when lynch mob was greater
        • Prentice Dunn et al - when submerged into group, self focus is lost
        • Lab experiments, ecological validity in Mullen, universal phenomenon = tribes
      • Issues
        • Gender
          • Cannavale et al - male and females respond differently
          • Diener et al - greater disinhibition of aggression in males
        • Group norms
          • Johnson and Dowing - made anonymous by KKK or nurses uniforms. People responded to normative cues in social context
        • Pro social behaviour
          • Spivey and Prentice Dunn - depends on situational factors such as a prosocial model = PP's more altruistic acts
          • Francis et al - adolescents more comfortable seeking help if anonymous


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Aggression resources »