social psychological approaches to explaining aggression

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  • Created by: Charlie
  • Created on: 19-12-12 10:15
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  • social psychological approaches to explaining aggression (social learning)
    • A01
      • Social learning theory - accoring to this theory aggressive behaviour is learned through direct experince or vicarious experiences
    • A02
      • evaluation on social learining theory
        • it can explain inconsistences in aggressive behaviour eg. i will explain why someone can be aggressive in their home enviroment but meek and submisive at work. this theory would say that they have learned that behaving differently in two situations will bring rewards
        • Explaining Cultural differances -the theory also has the abilty to explian differences in the levels of aggression in differant cultures. Wolfgang and ferracuti's "culture of violence" theory proposes that some cultures promote and model aggressive behaviour. while some cultures model and promote non aggressive behaviour. eg. the !Kung San parents do not use physical punishment and devalue aggression as a whole. thus there is little opportunty for childern to learn aggressive behaviour, due to the absence of these role models
      • Studies
        • Bandura at al 1963 - bandura divided 66 nursery children into three groups. all three of these groups watched an aggressive model kick and punch a bobo doll, accompanying with this with aggressive comments. each film was differant for the group it was played too. the children were then taken into rooms with toys including the bobo doll, and watched by observers
          • In the third condition was the model was punished by a second adult for their behaviour.
            • In the second condition, the aggressive model was rewarded with sweets and a seven up by another adult
              • In the first condition the flim ended with the model being neither rewarded or punished,
              • THE RESULTS - In condition 1 & 2 the children, there was a marked tendency for children to show spontaneous, imitative aggressive acts. children in condition 2 were the most aggressive, condition 3 were the least aggressive
                • In the third condition was the model was punished by a second adult for their behaviour.
                  • In the second condition, the aggressive model was rewarded with sweets and a seven up by another adult
                    • In the first condition the flim ended with the model being neither rewarded or punished,
                    • THE RESULTS - In condition 1 & 2 the children, there was a marked tendency for children to show spontaneous, imitative aggressive acts. children in condition 2 were the most aggressive, condition 3 were the least aggressive
                      • This study supports social learning theory as it in condition two children had the aggressive behaviour reinforced by sweets and condition 1 the behaviour woild have learned as well.
                        • EVALUATION ve -) lack of ecological vaildity - bobo is not a real person and had no was of retaliating when hit, thus it can be argue that this study can not tell us much about imitation of aggression toward fellow human beings.
                          • ve -) demand characterics - also it was noted that as the children were going for the experment " look mummy thats the doll i am suposed to hit!". this could indicate it was the fact the bobo doll was "made for hitting" and not the aggressive model causing the aggressive behaviour
                          • ve-) other findings - other investigators doubt bandura's conclusion of partcipants learning their aggressive behaviour by just watching an aggressive model. Johnston et al 1977 ran a simular experment on a group of nursery children and found those who acted the most aggressively toward the doll were rated by teachers and peers as more aggressive in general
                          • ve-) breach of confidentiality - the footage of the children in the experiment is now on the internet, this was never given permission for. however nothing can be done because the agreements were done by parents (most had passed away) and there was no such thing as site like youtube in the 1960's
                • This study supports social learning theory as it in condition two children had the aggressive behaviour reinforced by sweets and condition 1 the behaviour woild have learned as well.
                  • EVALUATION ve -) lack of ecological vaildity - bobo is not a real person and had no was of retaliating when hit, thus it can be argue that this study can not tell us much about imitation of aggression toward fellow human beings.
                    • ve -) demand characterics - also it was noted that as the children were going for the experment " look mummy thats the doll i am suposed to hit!". this could indicate it was the fact the bobo doll was "made for hitting" and not the aggressive model causing the aggressive behaviour
                    • ve-) other findings - other investigators doubt bandura's conclusion of partcipants learning their aggressive behaviour by just watching an aggressive model. Johnston et al 1977 ran a simular experment on a group of nursery children and found those who acted the most aggressively toward the doll were rated by teachers and peers as more aggressive in general
                    • ve-) breach of confidentiality - the footage of the children in the experiment is now on the internet, this was never given permission for. however nothing can be done because the agreements were done by parents (most had passed away) and there was no such thing as site like youtube in the 1960's
    • A03
      • This theory is simplistic, attempts to explain aggressive behaviour  - biological explainations claim that the male hormone known as testosterone have been cited has the main primary agent for aggression.The role of hormones in aggression can cast doubt on agression being purely a learned behaviour.
  • Untitled
  • 1) Their past experinces of aggressive behaviour - both their own and that of others
    • 2) the degree to which their behaviour was sussesful in the past.
      • 3) the current likelihood of their aggressive behaviour being rewarded or punished.
        • 4) cognitive, social and enviromental factor that are operating at the same time; for example, aggressive behaviour may increase under hostile envromental condition (e.g. very noisy), but fear of retaliation from victim may inhibit the expression of aggression

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