Social Policy Education

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  • Social Policy
    • Conservative Government
      • Basic Skills
        • Lacked basic skills
        • Developmentof YTS
      • Core curriculum
        • Labour gov. concerned about informal teaching methods
        • Basic Knowledge and core subjects taught
      • New Vocationalism
        • unemployment because education failed to provide skilled and motivated workers
        • commitment to train workers
        • hide unemployment figures
        • Examples
        • Criticisms
          • Marxism- serve needs of capitalism through expense of youths
          • Phil Cohen- YTS not job skills but attitudes and values needed. Lowers aspirations and serves capitalism
          • Dan Finn- YTS provides cheap labour, keeps unemployment down and reduces social unrest
          • Rob Strathdee- not pro ducting a high skill high income society, low paid low status jobs
          • Carol Buswell- channel girls into low paid womens employment
      • Assisted places scheme- gives poor people a free place in an expensive school if they pass 10-15% of exam
    • Education Reform Act 1988
      • Marketization
        • introduces market forces of consumer choice
        • reduces direct state control of education
        • Increases competition between school
        • state leads to low standards, inefficiency and lack of choice for parents
        • Schools would be run like businesses
        • Schools that provide them with desires would thrive and the others would go out of business
        • DAVID described this as parentocracy
        • in the education market, power shifts away from the producers
        • encouraged diversity
        • meets the needs of the pupils and raises educational standards
        • OFSTED
        • sponsorships of schools
        • Open enrolment
        • Formula funding
        • opt out of LEA control
        • Problems
          • reproduces inequalities
          • BALL - inequality through league tables and funding formula
          • Myrh of parentocracy
            • BALL- is a myth
            • GERWITZ- only mc can take advantage
            • LEACH AND CAMPOS- move into catchment area
      • Testing
        • Pupils aged 7, 11 and 14 would be tested
        • helps an informed choice
      • National Curriculum
        • meaningful comparison could be made
        • make moving between schools easier
      • Criticims
        • Choice- schools choose better pupils
        • League Tables- ranked schools based on results
        • Selection- schools didn't choose disabled or challenge children
        • Marketing Schools- increased competition
    • Labours work based programmes
      • Apprenticeships
        • extended apprenticeship scheme
        • offer more level 2 and level 3 NVQs
        • Young apprenticeships for kids aged 14-16
      • Increased flexibility programmes
        • pupils aged 14-16 allowed to attend college 1-2 days a week
        • encourage disaffected young pupils
      • Vocational GCSES- replaced GNVQs to give them the same status as GCSEs
      • Diplomas
        • combination of vocational and academic learning
        • encourage 14-19 yr olds in further study
    • Labour Policies
      • THOMPSON- schools can break free from mass education
      • education has become customised
      • exaggerates diversity
      • WHITTY- EMA's encourage children to stay on at university
      • TROWLER-policies such as increased funding and raising standards have evidence that they are reducing inequalities
    • Gender
      • c19 girls excluded from education
      • girls had to achieve a higher mark  than boys to pass the 11+
      • since 1970s there has been GIST to reduce gender differences in subject choice
    • Ethnicity
      • ASSIMILATION- assimilating ethnic groups into british society
      • MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION- value cultures of all students
      • SOCIAL INCLUSION- equally included in order to raise academic achievement

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