Social Learning Theory

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: r
  • Created on: 11-09-14 18:47
View mindmap
  • Social Learning Theory
    • AO1
      • Bandura believed that aggression could not be explained using the traditional learning theory.
        • SLT suggest that we learn by observing others
      • Observation
        • Children primarily learn their aggressive responses through observation - watching the behavior of the role model them imitating it.
        • Skinner's Operant conditioning theory claimed that learning takes place through direct reinforcement, Bandura suggested that the children learn just by observing the models.
      • Vicarious Learning
        • Children also observe and learn about the consequences of aggressive behavior by watching others being reinforced or punished.
        • Children witness many examples of aggressive behavior at home and at school as well as in films and T.V.
        • By observing the consequences of aggressive behavior, a child gradually learns what is considered appropriate and what isnt
        • Thus the children learn the behaviors (through observations) and they learn whether and when such behaviors are worth repeating (through vicarious learning)
      • Mental Representation
        • Bandura (1986) claimed in order for social learning to take place, the child must form mental representations of the events in their social environment.
        • The child must also represent possible rewards and punishments for their aggressive behavior in terms of expediencies of future outcomes.
        • When appropriate opportunities arise in the future, the child will display the learned behavior as long as the rewards is greater than the punishment
      • Production of behavior
        • Maintainence through direct experience
          • If a child is rewarded for a behavior, he or she is likely to repeat the same action in similar situations in the future.
          • A child who has a history of successfully bullying other children will therefore come to attach considerable value to aggression.
        • Self - Efficacy Expectancies
          • Children develop confidence in their ability to carry out the necessary aggressive action.
          • Children who haven't has a successful history/ weren't very good at displaying aggressive behavior have less confidence.
          • Those children with less confidence (lower sense of self - efficacy) in their ability to use aggression successfully to resolve conflicts may turn to other means.
    • AO2
      • Research Support
        • The Role Of Punishment
          • Bandura (1965) repeated The Bobo Doll Experiment but now, after exposure to the model, offered rewards to all the children imitating the models aggressive behavior.
          • In this case all three groups performed a similar number of imitative acts.
          • This shows that learning does take place regardless of reinforcements BUT the production of the behaviors is related to selective reinforcements.
        • Applicability To Adults
          • Phillips (1986) found that daily homicide rates in the US almost always increased in the week following a major boxing match.
          • This suggest that the viewers were imitating the behavior witnessed and that social learning is evident in adults as well as children.
      • Strengths
        • The Role of Vicarous Learning
          • It can explain aggressive behavior in the absence of direct reinforcement.
          • Although participants behaved more aggressively after observing an aggressive model, at no point were the children rewarded for any action
        • Individual Differences In Aggressive Behavior
          • It can explain differences in aggressive and non-aggressive behavior both between and within individuals.
      • Cultural Differences
        • SLT can be used to explain cultural differences.
        • Among the    !Kung San of the Kalahari Desert, aggression is comparatively rare.
        • This is because of child rearing practices, when the children argue, they just separate them and distract them.
        • They also do not reward or reinforce them and aggression is devalued by the society as a whole.
    • IDA
      • Ethical issues make it hard to test SLT experimentally.
      • Exposing children to aggressive behavior with the knowledge that they may reproduce it raises ethical issues.
      • It is exposing the children to physical and psychological harm.
      • As a result, experimental studies such as The Bobo Doll study would no longer be allowed to take place.
      • This means that it is difficult to test the experimental hypotheses about aggressive behavior, consequently difficult to establish the scientific credibility of the theory.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Aggression resources »