Social Learning Perspective - Bandura

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  • Social Learning Perspective - Bandura
    • Reinforcement - The consequences of behaviour can influence learning.
      • Reward
      • Encouragement
      • Punishment
      • Discouragment
    • Modelling
      • Observing behaviour and imitating it. Behaviours are learnt here even when they are not rewarded or encouraged.
    • Extracting cognitions
      • Rules of behaviour or beliefs of how to behave. These are formed through people looking for paterns or rules in behaviour they observe.
        • Unlike Skinner and other behavioursits, social learning theorists recognise the importance of cognition.
    • Agents of socialisation
      • Social learning emphasises learning from other people e.g. parents discouraging behaviours.
    • Prosocial and antisocial behaviour
      • A child is brought up with parents/older siblings who smoke, they may then think it is ok for them to smoke as well, leading them to model the behaviour.
        • This could then be reinforced by offering the individual cigarettes, leading to the individual extracting the cognition that it is ok to smoke.
    • In conclusion he emphasised that for behaviour to be imitated it must be rewarded in some way.
    • Vicarous reinforcement describes how individuals experience reinforcement indirectly by observing others being reinforced.
    • Bobo doll experiment
      • Modelling of aggression supporting evidence.
    • Evaluation
      • Positive features
        • Can explain sex differences in gender roles
        • Well supported with research evidence
        • Its an extension and improvement of Skinners learning theory.
        • Takes into account cognitions.
      • Negative features
        • Ignores discovery learning
        • Ignores biology and genetic factors.
    • Evidence
      • Supporting
        • Langolis and Downs (1980) sex differences
      • Contradictory
        • Berko (1958) Language acquisition


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