Social influences

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  • social influnce
    • conformity
      • occurs when a majority influences the beliefs and/or behavior of the minority
        • compliance - public agreement with the groups beliefs and behavior, in order to gain acceptance or avoid disapproval.
        • identification - public or private agreement with a groups beliefs and behavior because membership of that group is beneficial
        • internalization- going along with the group because we accept their beliefs and attitudes into our own cognition's
      • Asch
        • investigated whether individuals conform to an obviously wrong answer. one real participant who either answered last or next to last, the other group members were all confederates.there was a 32% rate conformity, 75% of participants conforming at least
          • unethical - involves deceit
          • time-consuming
    • explanations of conformity
      • Deutsch and Gerard
        • informal social influence
          • no clear correct way of behaving, involves social comparison with others in order to reduce uncertainty. conforming because we want to be right
        • normative social influence
          • a need to belong, by being accepted and avoiding rejection and ridicule. therefore individuals agree with other because they want to be liked.
      • difficult to separate normative social influence from informal social influence
    • obedience
      • complying with the demands of an authority figure
        • milgram
          • 40 volunteer males, testes their willingness to obey increasingly destructive orders. real participant was teacher, confederate was the learner. shocks sent up in 15 volt intervals. 100% of participants obeyed up to 300 volts. 62.5% went up to lethal 450 volts
            • unethical - causing distress and even seizres
            • valuable insight into obedient behavior was gained
            • unethical - deceit, no right of withdrawl
    • explanations of obedience
      • perception of legitimate authority; participants obey as they accept the status and power of the researcher, making it hard to disobey
      • Agentic state; participants see themselves as agents of the authority figure, thus giving up responsibility on to the researcher.
      • personal responsibility; anything detracting from the status of authority figures increases the participants sense of responsibility for their actions.
      • entrapment; milgrams particiapnts were gradually drawn into obeying. initial demands were mild, before becoming progressively destructive, participants found it increasingly harder to disobey orders
      • dehumanisation; where the learner was belittled as being 'so stupid he deserved to get shocked'
      • proximity; where the closer the participants were to the consuquences of the behaviour, the less obedient they were
    • Locus of control
      • rotter
        • high internal locus of control
          • people who believe they can influence outcomes of situations
        • high external locus of control
          • people who believe that they cannot influence the outcomes of situations
        • too simplistic
    • independent behavior
      • individuals resist pressures to conform and obey
        • positive explanatory style
      • non-independent behavior
        • individuals are likelier to conform and obey
          • depresses attributional style


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