Social Influence

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  • Social Influence
    • Conformity
      • Dual Process Theory
        • Normative Social Influence: Desire to be liked/accepted
        • Informational Social Influence: Desire to be right
    • Researchers
      • Sherif (1935):
        • To see if people conformed to a group norm of an unambiguous answer
        • Estimates moved to a group norm
      • Asch (1951):
        • To see if people conformed to a group norm even when the answer was evidently wrong
          • Subjects  conformed generally to the confederates on critical trials, some took longer but eventually conformed.
            • 75% conformed at least once
        • 1 naive participant and 4 confederates
          • 2 cards with lines, had to match up the ones of the same length. In critical trials (12 out of 18) confederates answered wrong
        • Replications of the experiment showed the same thing but all participants were male collage students
      • Zimbardo
        • To see whether people will conform to new social roles in a dangerous environment
        • 24 male Psychology students at Stanford University. They were split into two groups; prisoner and guard
          • They were to spend 2 weeks locked in cells, and the guards had to look after them. Prisoners were arrested from their homes and stripped and given a prison uniform and number. Guards were given a uniform, a baton and mirrored sunglasses
        • + : Ecologically valid, random allocation, justified research
        • - : Dehumanising, psychological harm done, not ethically valid
        • Guards behaved abusively, and enjoyed the power they had. All prisoners rights were re-defined as privileges, and punishment resulted in verbal abuse. Guards offered to work longer and seemed to forget they were acting. It was abandoned after 6 days due to the harm done
      • Milgram
        • To see  whether normal people were capable of evil things when under the influence of an authoritive figure
        • 40 high education students. Teacher was a naive participant and learner was a confederate. An authoritive figure in a lab coat was in the room with the teacher
        • Teacher read word pairs and had to give the learner an electric shock of 15V - 450V when they got it wrong. Learner was a confed with pre-recorded voices used. The authoritive figure has to tell the teacher to keep increasing the voltage if they disagreed
        • 60% continued to the full voltage and some laughed and showed sadistic tenancies  Many protested but still followed orders. Once they got to 300V the learner faked unconciousness but many participants didn't question the validity of the shocks. 90% of people  obey
        • Most people can be seduced by powerful figures and will obey no matter of the danger of the situation
        • Original study (26/40 - 65%), 2 experimenters with one telling teacher to stop (0%), 3 teachers where one stops at 150V and other at 210V (10%), Recorded voice (9/40 - 22.5%), Learner in room (12/40), Old estate (19/40 - 47.5%)
        • Not ethically valid, not ecologically valid, 75% believed it, only men used, all debriefed after, difficult to withdraw
      • Hofling
        • Nurses on a late shift were called by an unknown Doctor and told to administer 3 times the dose of a made up drug (Astroten)
        • 21/22 Nurses administered the drug
        • Field experiment so high ecological validity, American nurses and doctors, 1966, believable to nurses
      • Clark
        • Predicted that minority can exert influence with information present and can influence through changes/defections in behaviour from others
        • 270 Psychology students, mostly women
        • They were given a summary of information for the guilt of a man on trial. Some had counterarguments. Only those with counterarguments voted not guilty
        • Not realistic, mostly women, no real consequences, not ecologically valid, not generalisable,ethically valid
    • Obedience
      • Why do people obey?
        • 1) Legitimate Authoritive Figure: Obligation to those in power because of their status
        • 2) Gradual Commitment: Someone could show commitment to a task and gradually finding it harder to back down
        • 3) Agency Theory: Obeying because someone else is taking responsibility for the actions
    • Independent Behaivour
      • Internal Locus of Control: The belief that you are responsible for was happens in life
      • External Locus of Control: The belief that events are caused by external forces like luck
      • Attributional Style
        • Dispositional (Negative): Self blame and affected by negative events
          • Situational (Positive): Blame on others and not affected by negative events
        • Global: The situation affects all aspects of life
          • Local: The situation only affects one event
        • Stable: Keeping with the same view on a situation
          • Unstable: Changing view on a situation
    • Social Change
      • Tends to be minority influencing majority
        • Homosexuality
        • Women's rights - Emily Pankhurst, Suffragettes
        • Racism - Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Ray Charles
  • Subjects  conformed generally to the confederates on critical trials, some took longer but eventually conformed.
    • 75% conformed at least once



It's really useful. Thanks!

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