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    • AO1
      • By Tajfel 1970
      • social identity is a person's sense of who they are, groups, class, religion, football team contribute and are an important source of prode and self-esteem
      • to increase our self-esteem and self-image we enhance the status of our group in comparison to another e.g. Man U is the best, Arsenal are rubbish
      • by grouping things together, we tend to exaggerate the difference of other groups and the similarities of the same group
      • 3 stages
        • Social categorisation-1. when we see ourselves or other people as part of a group
        • Social Identification- 2. where we make ourselves a part of the group by wearing team tops so we adopt the identity of the group
        • Social Comparison- 3.when we compare our group with others, usually seeing the out-group group are lower than the in-group to boost self-esteem
    • AO2
      • POSITIVE
        • TAJFEL 1970
          • found being part of a group is enough to lead prejudice against other people not within that group.
        • Poppe and Lissen 1999 found people show in group favouritism in surveys
        • SHERIF ET AL 1961
          • found that conflict is not necessary as social comparison is present even if the groups are not introduced
        • VERKOOIJEN ET AL 2007
          • found people change their behaviour to conform with the group they are in.
        • explains real events such as football violence and racism
      • NEGATIVE
        • DOBBS AND CRANO 2001
          • found much less in-group favouritism than in Tajfel and other earlier studies
        • doesn't explain individual differences such as why some groups aren't violent, e.g. some football fans


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