Social Development

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  • Social Development
    • Birth & Infancy ~ 0-2 years
      • At 1 month they can follow something moving with their eyes
      • At 2 months old, babies can smile at human faces and recognize their mothers face
      • At 3 months babies respond when adults talk and also try to attract their attention by smiling and making noises
      • Infants recognize themselves at around 18-24 months
      • Infants understand that they are a boy or girl at around 2 or 3 years old and begin to learn their gender role, which is the behaviors deemed appropriate for males and females
      • First proper social relationship forms with their main carer at 1 year old
      • The baby becomes upset when parted from the main carer
      • Uses carer as safe base to explore environment
    • Childhood ~ 3-8 years
      • Attachment to main carer is still important but child is less clingy and starts to make relationships with others
    • Later Adulthood ~ 65+
      • Retirement around 65 which increases free time
      • Some older people lead very active lives once they retire and they make friends and get about more or more quality time with friends and family
      • Health problems and impairment can create difficulties that mean they are very isolated and lonely
    • Adolescence ~ 9-18 years
      • Peers become increasingly important as a source of knowledge about norms, behavior and the world
      • First romantic/ sexual relationships begin due to impact of hormones at puberty
      • Less reliance on family as independence develops and transition into adult roles begins, which may cause some conflict with parents
      • Around 16, a person's social network extends as they begin work, college or university
      • At 18, a person has the right to vote in the UK and is considered an adult
      • Smoke, gamble, drink
    • Other Cultures
      • Drive at 16 in America
      • Drink at 21 in America
      • In some Jewish cultures, people are considered an adult at 12 or 13
      • In Yemen, girls are expected to be adult enough to marry at 9 years old
    • Early Adulthood ~ 19-44 years
      • Friendship networks continue to be important
      • Early adulthood dominated by the formation of a stable, sexual partnership and finding employment or establishing a career
      • Marriage and parenthood bring new social roles to fill
    • Middle Adulthood ~ 45-64 years
      • Previously established lifestyle is maintained
      • Provide for children and support parents
      • Pressure may be removed when kids leave home but then a feeling of loss of social purpose


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