Social control and crime

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  • Created by: parvos98
  • Created on: 09-06-15 14:33
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  • Social Control
    • Formal
      • Social control of crime organised by the government, forces of law and order and the state. These tend to work on the concept of negative social reinforcement, like prison.
      • Perspectives.
        • Durkheim
          • Without social laws on deviance, society would collapse. The law exists to define a boundary line between deviance and social norms.
          • Punishment reflects level of societal evolution.
            • Mechanistic / primitive= retribution or direct punishment, like execution.
            • Organic/ Complex = restitutive punishment such as prison and rehab.
        • Marxist
          • Hall and Chambliss
            • Formal social control only serves the ruling-class as a tool of oppression.
          • Reiman
            • outlawing acts that are often only performed by working-class, ignoring more harmful acts by the ruling-class.
          • Althusser
            • Repressive state apparatus.
          • Rusche and Kircheimer.
            • Punishments of working-class reflect the interests of the ruling-class. Slavery= Manual labour.
      • Examples
        • Prison
        • Execution
        • public punishment
    • Informal
      • Control on crime that is manifested in daily society, such as with the community or family. Peers that press us into social conformity.
      • Types
        • Individual social control
          • Hirschi
            • Attachment.     How much do we care about someone elses wishes and safety?
            • Commitment- What have we got to lose from crime?
            • Involvement- How much time have we got for crime?
            • Belief-How much do we care about the law?
        • Family social control
          • Farrington and West
            • Crime is based on poor socialisation and a poor family life.
            • More criminals come from families with criminal fathers.
          • Dennis and Erdos
            • Decline in role of fathers has weakened external patterns of social control from communities and families.
            • Decline of paternal socialisation is a generation-wide social change.
        • Community and social control.
          • Murray
            • Underclass. No desire for paid employment, one night stands, and illegitimate children.
            • Right Realist attitude.
      • Criticisms.
        • Critical criminology.
          • Scraton
            • Deviance is an indication of class conflict, reflecting the fight between the working and upper-classes.
        • Left Realism
          • Matthews and Young
            • Decline in community and anti-social behaviour is harmful to working class
    • Late-modern perspectives- combining informal and formal control.
      • Foucault
        • Social control = "discipline".
          • Pre- mod= public and physical punishment.    In order to dazzle people with the "majesty of the law".
          • By late modernity- discipline has changed.
            • Extended and diffused in society, more agents of social control and bureaucracy.
            • Moved away from physical punishment, to more subtle reprimands. People "police" themselves with fear of punishment.
            • Surveillance society. People are always being watched in a societal "panopticon".
      • Cohen
        • Penetration- The laws penetrates social boundaries, with conformity present in schools, media and private companies all enforce social control.
        • Size and density- There are thousands of people working in the law and state, controlling more people by extending its reach (with imposing new laws for people to break "ASBO".)
        • Identity and visibility- Cohen argues that control and punishment are much more subtle, with hidden CCTV, tags and curfews. Also, more private security companies are acting as police (bouncers).


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