Social Beliefs & Judgements 1

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  • Created on: 17-05-15 06:23
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  • Social Beliefs + Attitudes 1
    • 1) Perception of Events
      • A) Priming (Predisposition)
        • Thinking Smart
          • Dijksterhaus + van Knippenberg (1998)
          • Ppts were primed with either a 'professor' or 'hooligan' character study
          • Those that thought they were professors did better on a general knowledge test
        • Thinking Old
          • Bargh (1996)
          • Undergrads had to form sentences out of a group of words
          • One group had words relating to old people eg retired, wrinkly
          • The other had totally random words
          • Their exits were then timed as they walked down a hallway
          • Those who were 'primed' walked slower
          • Replicated involving infa-red sensors failed to find the same effect
          • But other studies have found priming evidence
        • Activating particular associations in memory
          • Myers (2013)
      • B) Categorical Thinking (Prejudgement)
        • Advantages
          • Gives us a general impression without needing to understand much about them
          • Simplifies person perception
          • Allows us to predict behaviour of individuals
        • Disadvantages
          • Strengthens prejudices
          • Confusion arises when people dont fit the stereotype
        • Thinking that a person must be a member of a particular group based on visual cues
        • eg. black hair + piercings = goth
      • C) Preconceptions (Beliefs)
        • Durability
          • Firemen: Risk-takers?
            • Anderson et al (1980)
            • Ppts were given 1 of 2 cases: firefighters that are risk takers are good, or firefighters than are risktakers are bad
            • Half of each group was asked to re-explain the case in their own words
            • Those who were asked to say that this was good, were shown how weak the evidence was but carried on believing their own explanations
          • Belief Perseverance: The tendency for beliefs to survive discrediting evidence
            • Myers (2013)
        • Social information is often ambiguous so multiple interpretations can occur
        • Israel vs Palestine
          • Ross, Lepper & Vallone (1985)
          • Showed groups of pro-palestine or pro-israel supporters clips of killings in refuge camps
          • Both sides stated that the clips supported the other side
          • They recalled different details of the clips
    • 2) Judging Our Social World
      • A) Intuitive Judgements
        • Intuition: Important info is available immediately without deliberate conscious recall
        • These often arnt subjected to farther analysis even though they may be wrong
        • Bargh & Ferguson (2000)
        • These are automatic, implicit pieces of knowledge to reduce processing on our brains
      • B) Overconfidence
        • The tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs
        • Game Show Study
          • Dunning et al (1990)
          • Ppts had to interview their pair about anything they wanted to
          • The pair had to answer 20 2 choice questions in private
          • Ppts had to guess which answer they chose. They guessed right 63% of the time but felt confident 75% of the time
        • Incompetance feeds overconfidence
          • Those who dont know what they lack feel most confident
        • Dunning (1999)
      • C) Cognitive Heuristics
        • Ci) Representative Heuristics
          • The judgement of a person or event based on comparison with our representation of a category
          • Fischhoff & Bar-Hillel (1984)
          • Ppts were told that Frank was in a group of 80% engineers, 20% lawyers.
          • He was made to sound like a lawyer, so ppts suggested he must be one, regardless of statistical odds
        • Cii) Availability Heuristics
          • Judgements are based on available, relevant information contained in memory
          • More people would assume that there are more iraqis than tanzanians are we hear of them more
            • But this is false
            • Myers (2013)
          • Plane crashes seem more likely to happen as we heard of them more
            • But car crashes ar emore likely to happen
            • National Safety Council (2008)
        • Ciii) Counterfactual Thinking
          • Mentally stimulating what might have been
            • McGraw et al 2005
            • The medalists happiness is as easy as 1-3-2
        • Civ) Anchoring + Adjustment
          • Another way to make judgments is to 'anchor' onto the first available piece of information
          • Thersky & Kahnemann (1974)
          • Asked ppts if the population of Chicago is more or less than 200,000, then asked for the actual population
          • People underestimated hugely if anchor was 200,000 than if it had been 1million
        • Thinking strategies that enable quick decisions + judgements
        • Reduces amount of info that needs to be processed
      • D) Ilusionary Thinking
        • Di) Illusionary Correlations
          • We see correlations where none exist
          • Ward & Jenkins (1965)
          • Presented ppts with random cloud seeding data. Ppts became convinced they saw a pattern when there wasnt one
        • Dii) Illusion of Control
          • The illusion that we can control chance events
          • Langer (1977)
          • People who picked their own lottery number would often sell it at a much higher price than those who were randomly assigned one
      • E) Mood
        • Mood also affects judgement
        • Victorious football Alabama fans deemed war less likely than Auburn fans
        • Shweitzer et al (1992)
        • When we are in a good mood, decisions are easier, the world looks brighter

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