Psychology

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  • Social Approach
    • Hypotheses:
      • Null Hypothesis;a prediction  used in research that states no effect (other than that which happen by chance)
        • Alternative Hypothesis; definite difference will be found in the data
    • Types of questions
      • Open question- collects qualitative data- consists of words
        • Strengths and Weaknesses: + more depth of analysis leading to more meaningful conclusions, increasing validity.            - difficult to draw  comparisons between groups- or arriving at a reliable conclusion
      • Closed question            - collects quantitative data - numerical data
        • Strengths and Weaknesses: + possible to analyse data; order to draw conclusions.      - reduction of thoughts and feelings (limited; lack validity)
    • Gathering data
      • Interviews- you can interview participants, which involves meeting them (possibly over the phone) asking the questions and recording their answers: unstructured interviews- questions are open and flexible. Structured interviews- pre set order of questions, less flexible.
      • Questionnaire- which is a written set of questions, asking them to write their answers and return it to researcher:
    • Sampling Methods:
      • Random- every member has an equal chance of being selected.         + Unbiased (researcher does not control who is chosen)
      • Stratified- proportional respresentation of the target population. (smaller version) + represntative   - very time consuming and difficult
      • Opportunity- participants are selected from whoever is available at the time of the study. + really easy and quick. - Represntative, small section of the community.
      • Volunteer/self selected- participants select themselves. + likely to be motivated. - Represntative; motivation may make them behave differently- volunteers having special qualities.
    • Ethical issues; 1) Fully informed consent.       2) Debrief       3Deception  4) Right to withdraw       5) Competent (qualified)

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