The Social Approach Summary

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  • Social
    • Sampling Techniques
      • Random Sampling
        • TP=Chance
      • Opportunity Sampling
        • Ptp available at the time
      • Stratified Sampling
        • Divide TP into Subcategories
      • Volunteer Sampling
        • Ptp choose, Advert
    • Experimental Designs
      • Repeated Measures
        • Ptp do all conditions
      • Independent Measures
        • Ptp only do one condition
          • More ptp, ptp characteristics affect results
      • Matched Pairs
        • Ptp divided into groups, ptp matched characteristics
          • Cant match all characteristics, time consuming
    • Milgram (1963)
      • WWII
      • Lab
      • Volunteer Sampling- Advert
      • 40 Males
      • Yale University- Paid $4
      • Ptp= teacher
      • Researcher next door
      • Independent Measures
      • All Ptp shocked to 300V
      • 65% Ptp shocked to 450V
      • Evaluation
        • High Reliability- standardised procedure
        • Low Ecological Validity- unrealistic task
        • Ethical Weaknesses- Deception (aim + task)
        • No Demand Characteristics- ptp not know aim
        • Volunteer Sample- unrepresentative of TP
    • Hofling et al (1966)
      • Nurses obey doctors
      • Field
      • 2 Hospitals- USA
      • 22 nurses
      • Unknown doctor
    • Milgram's Variation (1965)
      • Lab
      • 80 Males (20-50yrs)
      • 1 control group
      • 1 rebellious group (2 stooges- refuse at 150V + 210V)
      • 1 obedient group (2 stooges- gave full 450V)
      • 40 ptp gave 300V
      • 26 (65%) gave 450V
      • Rebellious results= 50% refused passed 150V
      • Obedient results= 72.5% to 450V
      • Evaluation
        • Low Demand Characteristics- ptp think memory test
        • High reliability- EV's + procedure standardised
        • Low ecological validity- artificial setting, unnatural task
        • Ethical weaknesses- protection (distress from thinking giving electric shocks)
    • Meeus and Raajmaker (1986)
      • Job Interview
      • Field- university
      • 24 Ptp (male + female)
      • Volunteer Sample
      • Ptp= interviewer
      • 32 Multiple choice Q's
      • 4 verbal prods
      • Harass- 15 negative statements
      • Evalutation
        • Ptp deceived- no DC- told test to see if stress affects perfomance
        • High Reliability- standardised procedure
        • Low Ecological Validity- not everyday scenario
        • Ethical Weaknesses- Protection= distress, negative comments
        • Volunteer Sampling- unrepresentative of TP
        • Application- WWII
    • Milgram's Agency Theory (1974)
      • Autonomous State
        • Agentic State
          • Denial
        • Agentic Shift
          • Agentic State
            • Denial
          • Moral Strain
    • Tajfel and Turner (1982)
      • social categorisation- ourselves + others in different groups
        • My group= 'IN'
        • Your group= 'OUT'
      • Social Identification- taking on group norms + values
      • Social Comparison- compare my group positive qualities with other group negative qualities
        • Raise self-esteem
        • 'IN' group favoritism, 'OUT' group hostility
      • Evaluation
        • Explains discrimination (racism, class conflict)
        • Tajfel (1986)- boys= 'over-estimator'/'under-estimator' groups, favor boys in own group
        • Doesn't explain own-group prejudices
        • Personality can affect
        • Sherif (1968)- opposing, suggests we dont need to belong to a group
        • Levine et al (2005)- supporting, football fans more likely to help other football fans in difficulty
    • Sherif's Robbers Cave (1961)
      • 22 white, middle-class, protestant american boys (12yrs)
      • 2 groups (Eagles + Rattlers)
        • separate for 5 days
          • Bonding
          • Groups dislike eachother
      • 'Hostility Phase' = 93% had friends in own group
      • After 'Co-operation Phase' = 30% had friends between two groups
      • Evaluation
        • Low demand characteristics- not know in study
        • High ecological validity- natural activities for a summer camp
        • Ethical weaknesses- no informed consent, create deliberate prejudice between children
        • Boys very similar characteristics, difficult to generalise to TP
  • Evaluation
    • Hofling et al (1966)
      • Nurses obey doctors
      • Field
      • 2 Hospitals- USA
      • 22 nurses
      • Unknown doctor
    • Unethical- no informed consent, deception etc.
    • Low Demand Characteristics- ptp not know in experiment
    • Low reliability- EV not controlled, less likely to replicate
    • High Ecological Validity, real life setting
    • Only 2 hospitals used

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