Social Stratification Sociologists

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  • Social Stratification
    • Sociological Perspectives
      • Marxism & Poverty
      • Functionalism & Poverty
      • Feminism & Poverty
    • Max Weber
      • argued that classes are formed in the labour market, where one class of people hired labour and another class sells their labour
        • argued that a class is a group of people who have similar life chances; that is chances of being successful in life, opportunities in education, health etc
          • identified four main social classes
            • property owners
            • the petty bourgeoisie
            • professionals
            • the working class
            • these different classes have different market situations or life chances in the labour market
              • saw class as based on the distribution of economic resources such as wealth
                • stressed the importance of non-economic factors such as status and power in determining life chances
                  • status groups are identified by the prestige attached to their lifestyle
                    • a person's status may differ from their class position
    • Marx
      • identified to mnay classes in capitalist society
        • the bourgeoisie
          • class membership is determined by economic factors
            • the proletariat
            • ownership of the means of production
              • the proletariat experience alienation under capitalism because they lack control over production and the products of their labour
                • the bourgeoisie's posistion is justified by ruling-class ideology
                  • this ruling-class ideology leads to false class  consciousness among the proletariat, who are unaware of the true nature of social relationships under capitalism
                    • argued that, over time, the bourgeoisie would get smaller and much richer
                      • the petty bourgeoisie, unable to compete, would sink into the proletariat
                        • the proletariat would get bigger and much poorer
                          • eventually, the proletariat would rebel, leading to a revolution
                            • following this, the means of production wold be communally owned, resulting in a classless society
            • non-ownership of the means of production
              • the proletariat experience alienation under capitalism because they lack control over production and the products of their labour
                • the bourgeoisie's posistion is justified by ruling-class ideology
                  • this ruling-class ideology leads to false class  consciousness among the proletariat, who are unaware of the true nature of social relationships under capitalism
                    • argued that, over time, the bourgeoisie would get smaller and much richer
                      • the petty bourgeoisie, unable to compete, would sink into the proletariat
                        • the proletariat would get bigger and much poorer
                          • eventually, the proletariat would rebel, leading to a revolution
                            • following this, the means of production wold be communally owned, resulting in a classless society
        • the proletariat
    • Murray
    • Walby
    • Davis & Moore
      • argue all societies need a way of placing individuals into different roles or social posistions that must be filled
        • known as role allocation
          • some roles are functionally more important for society than other
            • most people lack the talent to fill these functionally important roles or the motivation to train for them
              • to attract the most talented people, these jobs mist provide access to desirable rewards such as high pay and status
                • stratification is functionally necessary for society
                  • it ensures that the most talented people train for and fill the most important jobs
                    • all societies must treat people differently in terms of their status and rewards
                      • all societies must have some degree of inequality built into them
                        • this inequality is functional, however, because people accept it as fair
    • Townsend
    • Devine
    • Max Weber
    • Goldthrope
      • tested the embourgeoisement thesis in the early 1960s
        • interviewed affluent workers and their wives from 3 companies in Luton about their attitudes to work, lifestyles, aspirations and political views
          • he rejected the embourgeoisement thesis but argued that affluent worker may be part of a 'new' working class that resembled the middle class in terms of privatised, home-centered lifestyles

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