Social Policy 1990 - 2007

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  • Social Policy 1990 - 2007
    • extent of social liberalism
      • this period was a time of social change
        • can be shown in changes in attitude to homosexuality
      • negative attitudes grew in the 1980s & peaked 1987
        • part of this may have been the identification of AIDS
          • first case recorded 1981 & because gay men at increased risk, referred to as the 'gay plague'
      • 'loony left' councils were accused of 'promoting homosexual lifestyle' by funding support groups
      • section 28 banned the promotion of homosexuality by local authorities in 1988
      • PG 'Outrage' threatened to 'out' gay clergy & MPs
      • there was a reduction in the age of consent for gay men from 21 to 18 in 1994
        • equality not achieved until 2000 when the age was lowered to 16
          • wasn't until 2000 the ban on homosexuals in the military was lifted
      • child support agency set up 1993 to try ensure absent parents paid maintainance for their children
      • family campaigners feared for marriage as the divorce rate hit an all time high in the 1990s
        • % of babies born out of wedlock doubled to 12% in the early 1980s & to 30% in the 1990s
      • concerns or underage sex & availability of contraceptives to young girls seen as problem to some
      • Mary Whitehouse influenced the 'Video Recording Act' 1994
    • anti-establishment culture
      • Major wanted to create a classless society
        • many were willing to change & there was increasingly criticism of the monarchy
      • changing attitude to the royal family reflected a general decline
        • 1987-1997 difficult for the monarchy
          • 3/4 marriages of the Queen's children broke down & recordings of affairs splashed over tabloids
      • debates about the financing of Windsor Castle after the 1992 fire
        • Queen paid taxes on her private income
      • the trough of public support was reached in 1997 when the Princess of Wales, Diana, was killed in a car crash
        • Queen was accused of not caring while the country was mourning
      • anti-establishment can be seen through art culture
        • Damien Hurst & Tracy Emin etc. challenged what art was all about
      • also seen through youth who challenged establishment
        • music style & USA influences
          • raves & free parties; 2nd 'summer of love'
      • criminal justice & public order 1994
        • police could break up the free parties
    • position of women
      • 'third wave of feminism'
        • broader than just legal & financial equalities
          • more about breaking down stereotypes of women (gender, race, sexuality)
      • Underground Riot Grrrl movement
        • female punk bands that sang about feminist issues
      • message of 'girl power' esp. through spice girls
      • first female speaker in HoC Betty Boothroyd & first female head of MI5 Stella Rimington 1992
      • first ordination of women as priests in CoE 1994
      • 1994 **** within a marriage became a criminal offence
      • 1993 68% women of working age were in employment
      • 1996 50% employees were women
      • 1997 number of women elected as MPs rose to 120 - 101 of there were Lab. (Blair's Babes)
      • childcare provision extended
        • by 2007 all 3-4 year olds entitled to 12.5 hours free nursery education weekly
          • rose to 15 hours in 2010
      • 1999-2007 % of FTSE100 companies that had no women fell from 36% to 24%
      • still limited progress on pay gap - only earning 87% of male wage 2007


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