Social movements in the UK

  • Created by: meliasyd
  • Created on: 20-05-19 09:03
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  • Social Movements
    • Pressure Groups
      • Differences
        • Pressure groups = formal structure and organisation eg. recognisable leader
          • Social movements = informal, no recognisable figurehead or organisation 'organic'
          • Pressure groups usually have an official internet presence and a way supporters can engage with the cause
        • Social movements often cover many issues - causal pressure groups promote a single issue
        • Pressure groups = formal, registered members Social movements = supporters
        • Sectional pressure groups have limited and exclusive membership whereas social movements are open to any form of support
        • Pressure group = directly influence government policy via access points / lobbying Social movements = aim to influence public opinion / gain media attention
      • Similarities
        • Both seek to influence politics
          • With different aims; pressure groups = policy, social movements = opinion
            • Differences
              • Pressure groups = formal structure and organisation eg. recognisable leader
                • Social movements = informal, no recognisable figurehead or organisation 'organic'
                • Pressure groups usually have an official internet presence and a way supporters can engage with the cause
              • Social movements often cover many issues - causal pressure groups promote a single issue
              • Pressure groups = formal, registered members Social movements = supporters
              • Sectional pressure groups have limited and exclusive membership whereas social movements are open to any form of support
              • Pressure group = directly influence government policy via access points / lobbying Social movements = aim to influence public opinion / gain media attention
        • A form of active participation
        • Both want to gain wide support for cause
        • Can use similar methods eg. direct action
        • Pressure groups often arise from social movements
        • Both can represent cross-party issues and have membership from all political parties
    • Membership and aims
      • Aims are usually in resistance to or advocating radical social or political change
        • eg. feminist movement in resistance to Donald Trump
        • eg. Arab Spring - resistance to oppressive government regime
        • eg. March for our lives, promoting gun control legislation
      • Membership can be of individuals directly affected by the subject or political activists inspired by the movement
        • eg. Stop the War campaign - many pressure groups, politicians, celebrities and members of the public resisting Iraq war
        • eg. Suffragette movement - disenfranchised women
      • Spontaneous coming together of people whose relationships are not defined by rules and procedures but who merely share a common outlook on society.
    • Social movements are loosely organised but sustained campaigns in support of a social goal, typically either the implementation or the prevention of a change in society’s structure or values.
    • Methods and resources
      • Peaceful protests eg. civil rights movement
      • All methods of direct action
      • Civil resistance eg. extinction rebellion / fridays 4 future
      • Sustained action
      • Cyberactivism eg. use of twitter / hashtags as a way of congregating
      • Marches - arguably most common eg. women's march
      • Visible signs of solidarity / support eg. times up, white roses
    • Global nature
      • If social movements pick up widespread support and media attention they can become global
      • eg. Arab spring - 13 countries involved similar uprisings
      • eg. fridays 4 future - started by Greta Thunberg from Sweden, spread all over Europe
    • Women's movement
      • Refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence
      • Began with women's suffrage and the campaign for the right to vote in late 19th century
      • Has continued to the present day with campaigns such as Time's up and #metoo in the wake of sexual harassment
      • Sucesses
        • 1918- British Women given right to vote
        • Various legislation since in the UK regarding Female Genital Mutilation and a recent Act on upskirting
      • Failures
        • Many nations (particularly in the Middle East) still have legislation and attitudes which discriminate against Women.
        • Alabama Abortion Bill May 2019 - banning abortion, arguably infringing women's rights
    • Environmental movement
      • Large movement encompassing many events which have taken place since the first decades of the 20th century
      • Advocating sustainable use of resources, recognition of the effects of industrialisation and the use of 'green' and environmentally friendly options
      • Includes many pressure groups; extinction rebellion, greenpeace. Political parties; The Green Party. Celebrities: David Attenborough, Leonardo Dicaprio
        • Recent movements in pop culture brought into mainstream media: eg. Earth - Lil Dicky
      • Fridays 4 Future protesting climate change
      • David Attenborough highlighting the effects of plastic on the oceans in Blue Planet
      • Sucesses
        • Creation of posts to monitor eg. Department for environment - secretary
        • Government targets eg. reducing emissions by 2025
        • Parliamentary declaration of climate emergency in May 2019 led by Jeremy Corbyn in direct response to student protests
        • Opposing HS2 led to pushing back and potential scrapping
      • Failures
        • Many targets will not be reached,failing to protect endangered species, reduce agricultural polution
        • The value of convenience is higher than government will to change legislation
        • Governmental targets are often set for many years in advance eg. removal of petrol and diesel by 2040
          • Suggestion it will be 'too late' at that stage, irreversible damage by 2030

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