Social Interactionism research

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    • BECKER/ MALINOWSKI - social reaction more important than act
      • BECKER - deviance created by society - social groups create deviance by making rules& applying them rules to particular people & labelling them as 'outsiders'
      • Becker illustrates this through Malinowski
      • Malinowski described how a youth in the Trobriand Island killed himself as he'd been publically accused of incest, he found incest was widespread on the island & not frowned upon as long as it was discreet
    • CICOUREL - negotiation
      • says there may be a degree of 'negotiation' involved in the process of labelling. MC youths have more negotiating skills & can negotiate out of a label easier
      • police share a stereotypical view of a typical criminal, those seen to 'fit the role' more likely to get arrested
      • self fulfilling prophecy- by arresting people who fit the role, reinforces that criminals reflect this background
    • REISS - negotiation
      • study of male prostitutes - many had sex with men but saw this as 'work' and still considered themselves as 'straight'
    • BOX - jury service
      • reinforces that it's the social reaction not the act that matters
      • trial was a theft charge of a small amount - found guilty. members of jury had fiddled their expenses which was more money than the woman had stole
      • they'd escaped the label of thief as there was no social reaction
    • LEMERT - selective decisions
      • police dont apply the law uniformly - use discretion based on judgements about if people are typical deviants
      • labelling can lead to difficulties for the individual & encourage them into deviance
    • COHEN - moral panic
      • media short of main stream story- when disturbances in Clacton were heard it became front page news - largely exaggerated creating mora panic
    • WILKINS- deviancy amplification
      • deviancy amplification leads to self fulfilling prophecy
    • MILLER & REILLY - moral panic
      • Islamic terrorism


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