Social Influence

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  • Social Influence
    • Conformity
      • 2 Types of conformity
        • Compliance
          • Shallowest, public change
        • Internalisation
          • Deepest, personal and private change
      • Why do people conform
        • Informational social influence (ISI) RIGHT
        • Normative Social Influence (NSI) LIKED
        • Uncertainty
      • Resisting the pressure to conform
        • Exposure to dissent
        • Reactance
        • Group Unanimity
        • Group size
      • Sherif ISI
        • Static light - how much and which direction
        • All together, asked separate, again in 3s of differing norms
        • Judgements close together
        • Low validty - demand characteristics
        • Ethical issues - anxiety
        • Ambiguous result
        • Lacks ecological validity and mundane rewalism
      • Asch NSI
        • 1 line vs 3 lines
        • P 6th to answer, other 6 confederates
        • Answer always obvious, confederates wrong 12/18 'Critical Trials'
        • Conformed 32% and 74% conformed at least once
        • Low ecological validity
        • Demand characteristics - low validity
        • Cultural - Only Western society
    • Obedience
      • Why do people obey?
        • Graduated commitment
        • The agentic state
        • Role of buffers
        • Perceived authority
      • Resisting the pressure to obey
        • Autonomy
        • Responsibility
        • Removing legitimate authority
      • Bickman - Obedience
        • Validity of Milgram's work realistic setting
        • 153 Ps and 3 experimenters - sports coat and tie, milkman and police guard
        • Orders = 'pick up the bag' 'pay for parking meter' 'stand on other side of pole'
        • More likely to obey guard
        • Supports Milgram's variation of perceived authority
      • Milgram - Obedience
        • 40 men aged 20-50 paid $4.50
        • P's teachers and accomplice was learner
        • Teacher told to shock learner for wrong answers up to 450 volts
        • 65% gave maximum shock, 74% learnt something important, 1 person regretted taking part
        • Supported by replication - high ecological validity
        • Cross cultural support
        • Thorough debrief avoids ethical issue of deception
        • Low internal validity
        • Yale prestigious environment
        • Unethical - stress
      • Variation of Milgram
        • Ordinary member of public - 20%
        • Touch proximity - forcing learners hands onto plate - 30%
    • Independent behaviour
      • Locus of control
        • Rotter - a persons perception of personal control over own behaviour
        • Internal - more likely to be independent. Believe in control and take responsibility
        • External - Success is due to luck and external factors. Likely to conform
      • Gender and Culture
        • Eagly and Carli- women most influenced by men when group pressure present. Women more conformist on group pressure tasks
        • Bond and Smith - Collectivist cultures showed higher conformity levels than individualist
    • Social change
      • implications
        • Obedience - no or negative
        • Conformity - no or negative
        • Civil disobedience and non conformity - Positive
      • Minority influence- consistent views of a few, snowball effect. Minority view becomes authority if show personal sacrifice and moral principles and belief in point
      • Disobedient role models - variation of Milgram = 2 confederates disobeying fell to 10%
      • Importance of moral principles and internal locus of control - strong moral convictions less likely to be influenced
      • MOSCOVICI
        • Groups of 6 women, 2 confederates asked to describe colour of blue cards
        • Confederates said it was green and answered first
        • Participants agreed 8% of the time and 32% conformed at least once
        • Consistency is key , when confederates answered inconsistently conformity fell to 1.25%
        • Lab study
        • Gender bias
        • Weak data

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