Social Influence

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  • Social Influence
    • 1. Types of Conformity/Explanations for Conformity
      • Kelman(1958)-3 Types of Conformity
        • Compliance-public change in attitude or behaviour but private attitudes do not change, change occurs due to seeking approval
        • Internalisation-go along with the group due to acceptance of views, both public and private change in behaviour
        • identification-may accept influence because they want to be associated with the group
      • Explanations for Conformity
        • Normative social influence(desire to be liked)
          • avoiding rejection, results in compliance, most likely to happen if we feel under surveillance
        • Informational social influence(desire to be right)
          • results in internalisation,in ambiguous situations there is a public and private change in behaviour and attitudes, likely to happen due to belief others are experts
      • Evaluation
        • difficulties in distinguishing between compliance and internalisation
        • research support for normative influence-Linkenbach and Perkins(2003), Schultz et al (2008)
        • research support for informational social influence-Fein et al(2007)
    • 2. Variables affecting Conformity
      • Key Study: Asch(1956)
      • Variables affecting conformity
        • 1. Group size
        • 2. Unanimity of the majority
        • 3. The difficulty of the task
      • Evaluation
        • ethical issues: deception, lack of informed consent, psychological harm
        • no relevance to real life-Fiske(2014)
        • findings may only apply to certain situations-Williams and Sogon(1984)
    • 3. Conformity to Social Roles
      • The Stanford Prison Experiment, Zimbardo et al(1973)
        • dispositional explanation-belief that violence was due to both prisoners and guards having different personalities
        • situational explanation explanation-belief that prisoners and guard behave as they do due to the situation they are placed in
      • Evaluation
        • conformity to roles is not automatic-Haslam and Reicher(2012)
        • problem of demand characteristics(Banuazizi and Movahedi(1975)
        • unethical to an extent-potential harm, should have stopped the study earlier, but there was no deception
    • 4. Situational variables affecting obedience
      • Key Study: Milgram(1963)
      • Situational variables in obedience
        • proximity
        • location
        • the power of uniform-Bushman(1988)
      • Evaluation
        • ethical issues: deception, potential harm-distress
        • research support for the power of uniform-Durkin and Jeffery(2000)
        • lack of internal validity-Orne and Holland(1968)
    • 5. Agentic State and Legitimacy of Authority
      • Agentic State
        • Milgram(1974)-autonomous state=person sees themselves as responsible for their own actions, agentic state=person sees themselves as an agent for carrying out another person's wishes
        • agentic shift
      • Legitimate authority-people feel committed to an authority figure as they are perceived to be in a position of social control within a situation
      • Evaluation
        • agentic state explanation and real life obedience-Lifton(1986)
        • agentic state of just plain cruel?
        • the legitimate authority explanation and real life obedience
    • 6. The Authoritarian Personality
      • a distinct personality pattern characterised by strict adherence to conventional values and a belief in absolute obedience or submission to authority, rigid thinkers
      • dispositional explanation of obedience
      • The California F Scale-Adorno et al(1950)
      • Right wing authoritarianism(RWA)(Altemeyer, 1981)
        • conventionalism
        • authoritarian aggression
        • authoritarian submission
      • Key Study: Elms and Milgram(1966)
      • Evaluation
        • research evidence for authoritarianism-Dambrun and Vatine(2010)
        • the social context is more important
        • differences between authoritarian and obedient participants
    • 7. Resistance to social Influence
      • Social Support-the perception that an individual has assistance avalable from other people
        • resisting conformity-Asch\(1956), Allen and Levine(1969), Allen and Levine(1971)
        • resisting obedience-Gamson et al(1982)
      • Locus of Control-refers to a person's perception of personal control over their own behaviour
        • internal locus of control-believe that what happens to them is largely a consequence of their own ability and effort
        • external locus of control-believe what happens to them is determined by external factors e.g luck
        • AO3: locus of control is related to normative but not informational social sontrol-Spector(1983), locus of control-people are more external than they used to be
    • 8. Minority Influence
      • a form of social influence where members of the majority group change their beliefs or behaviours as a results
      • Consistency, Commitment, Flexibility
      • Key Study: Moscovici et al(1969)
      • Evaluation
        • support for flexibility-Nemeth and Brillmayer(1987)
        • the real value of minoity influence-Nemeth(2010)
        • artificial tasks
    • 9. Social Influence processes in social change
      • Moscovici(1980)
        • Social change through minority influence 1. drawing attention, 2. cognitive conflict, 3. consistency of position, 4. augmentation principle, 5. snowball effect
      • Social change through majority influence-social influence interventions

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