Social contrustion of the news and media.

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  • The Social Construction of the News
    • Making a profit.
      • Mainstream media is run like a company and much of the profit comes from advertising.
        • It is important to have a larger audience who will buy the products advertised and that advertisers aren't offended by media content (Bagdikian et al).
      • In order to make the most profit it is important to offend no one and appease the majority.
        • This helps to maintain the hegemony of dominant ideologies in the media.
      • Barnett and Gaber: pressure to make a profit can lead to more conformist, less informed approaches to reporting news.
    • Globalization and citizen journalism.
      • News is instantly available thanks to modern technology so mainstream media can no longer rely on the attention of the audiences so media must be up to date and tailored for their audiences.
      • Citizen journalism can overcome biases of mainstream media as it is often unfiltered, first had experiences (social media and its role in the climate action protests)
      • Citizen journalism allows light to be shed on news and events that traditional media may not report on so it gives a more realistic account of the world.
      • Mainstream news companies use citizen journalism to aquire news items and supporting images and video at little cost themselves.
    • Agenda-setting
      • People only discuss and form opinions about things that they think they know about so those who provide this information have a great deal of power.
      • Whilst the media may not tell people what to think, they report within a list of subjects, an  agenda, which tells people what to think about and how to think about it.
      • The news media actively discourage people from challenging the dominant ideology to find solutions to the problems reported on.
      • Various pressures (economic, political etc.) may result in some news items not being reported on in certain ways for fear of offending powerful groups in society.
    • Gatekeeping
      • This is the media's power to refuse to cover certain stories.
      • The stories that are not reported on are frequently those in opposition to social norms or the dominant class or because they are regarded as uninteresting or controversial.
    • Norm-setting
      • The way the media emphasise and reinforce conformity to social norms and isolate those who don't conform.
      • Norm-setting it achieved through:
        • Encouraging conformist behaviour.
        • Discouraging non-conformist behaviour.
        • Media representations.
    • Presentation
      • The way news items are presented. some images and language used hidden biases.
    • The creation of moral panics.
      • False, inaccurate and sensationalised reporting and lead to moral panics.
      • Moral panic: a wave of public concern about an exaggerated or imaginary threat.
      • Moral panics show the media's power to define what is considered normal and deviant and reinforce the consensus. (deviancy amplification).
    • News values
      • Composition
      • Continuity
      • Personalization
      • Negativity
      • Proximity
      • Meaningfulness
      • Threshold
      • Frequency
      • Unabiguity
      • Reference to elite persons or nations
      • Unexpectedness
      • Narrative
      • Extraordinariness
    • Organisational and bureaucratic   constraints.
      • Financial
      • TIme
      • Space
      • Deadlines
      • Audiences


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