Social Class - Differences in Education.

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  • Social Class - Differences in Education.
    • INTERNAL
      • Labelling - Interventionist Views
        • Becker (1971) - Study 60 Chicago teachers and their judgement of how pupils fit the 'ideal' student image. M/c more 'ideal', 'w/c' seen as misbehaved. This may then lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy.
          • LIMITATION:Hempelorgen-son (2009) - found that the image of an 'ideal' pupil varied between schools.
        • LIMITATION:These explanations could be viewed as generalising and deterministic, assuming labelling will lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Some students may use negative labelling as a push to achieve more.
      • Streaming
        • Hargreaves (1967) - Found streaming is based on social class, not ability. M/c is top sets. W/c is bottom. *Once in sets, its difficult to move, so pupils are locked into their low expectations.
        • POLICY LINK: (Gillborn and Youdell) - Exam League Tables - Popular schools Cream Skim, selecting high ability pupils and silk shift out the less able. This gets better grades and more funding. Leaving unpopular schools to take on the 'left overs'', getting low grades and less funding.
        • POLICY LINK: (Gillborn and Youdell) -  Educational Triage, also known as the 'A-C Economy'.
      • Self-fulfilling Prophecy
        • Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) - Found that falsely labelled  'high achieving', students lived up to the label, making big academic progress. The same can be seen for the 'low achieving' as they too live up to the label - often forming anti-school subcultures.
      • POLICY LINK: Formula Funding - Popular m/c schools are well funded and so, can afford better staff and facilities - this attracting more students and achieving higher grades. However, the exact opposite occurs within a lot of unpopular w/c schools , as they sink with little funding and low grades.
      • POLICY LINK: Open Enrolment- Parentocracy and inequalities of the Edn system are made to appear acceptable due to m/c schools having little room for w/c students who may be outside the catchment area, leaving them no choice but to go to their potentially unpopular and possibly under-funded local school.
      • LIMITATION:Willis(1979) Rejects the idea that Anti-School subcultures are a product of labelling, and suggests they come from having a w/c culture, which leads to 'lads' choosing to resist.
      • STRENGTH: Gillborn and Youdell - Put internal processes in schools into a broader context, helping to explain how schools work within a wider Edn system - whose 'marketisation' policies directly affect individuals and create differences between class achievement.
    • EXTERNAL
      • Cultural Deprivation
        • Language
          • Finstein (2008) -  parents with better Edn, use high level questioning. Parents w/o tend to use simple questioning.
          • Bernstein (1975) - Argues w/c underachieve due to restricted code, which does not fit the Edn systems use of elaborated code.
        • Parents Education
          • Douglas (1964) - w/c placed less value on Edn, so were less encouraging with their children.
          • Finstein (1975) - Immediate / Deferred Gratification.
          • Parents socialisation techniques - such as harsh parenting, less reading the child when they are young and a lack of knowledge as to what the child needs to succeed.
          • STRENGTH: Finstein does note that its the educated parent that impacts a child's success - not the social class itself. However, more m/c parents tend to have a better Edn BUT not all. So not all m/c benefit from educated parents.
        • LIMITATION:Nell Keddie(1973) argues that this explanation quickly blames the people for their own failure, blaming a deprived culture. when maybe schools could be to blame. W/c children are culturally different - not deprived.  The arguments generalise and are deterministic, stating the lifestyles will inevitably be passed on.
      • Material Deprivation
        • Flaherty (2004) - Financial issues in the family are a key factor in non-attendance. 90% of failing schools are in deprived ares
        • Douglas (1964) - Less money = lack of Edn resources, poor diet and health lead to low performance in school.
        • Mortmore and Whitty state that it is material deprivation that most effects a childs Edn, and so child poverty should be tackled as a matter of urgency.
      • Bourdieu - 3 types of Capital
        • Cultural
          • Desired knowledge, language, values and ability. Passed on from higher educated parents, through disciplinary methods.
        • Educational
          • Parents and children aware of what they need to achieve academic success, and also have a high work ethic in order to reach their goal.
        • Economic
          • m/c able to 'buy' their educational success, by paying for private schools and tutors ect.They can also move to catchment areas - known as 'Selection by Mortgage'.
        • Supported by Gewirtz - m/c parents can make better choices for their children due to their capitals.

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