Social Class and Educational Achievement

  • Created by: BWards18
  • Created on: 01-06-17 18:34
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  • Social Class and Educational Achievement
    • External
      • HOWARD - Poor diet in W/C students leads to more illness and absence
      • REAY - 'Cost of Persistence', W/C more likely to go to  local uni's and work part-time
      • SUGARMAN - Different attitudes due to parents occupation, W/C are ......
        • Fatalistic - What will be, will be
        • Collectivism  - Value being part of a group more than being an individual
        • Immediate Gratification - Pleasure now rather than later
        • Present - time orientation -Present is more important than future
      • DOUGLAS - W/C parents are less interested and more interest was shown by M/C parents through parents evening and greater stimulus at home
      • BERNSTEIN - M/C's use elaborated code, W/C's use restricted code but the education system uses elaborated code
      • BOURDIEU - R/C decided what topics are worthy and cultural and economic capital can be transferred to educational capital
      • GERWITZ - 3 types of parent following the introduction of marketisation
        • Privileged Skilled Choosers - MC, economic and cultural capital
        • Disconnected local choosers - W/C, restricted by lack of capital, less experience with schools
        • Semi Skilles Choosers - W/C, ambitious for children, frustrated by system
    • Internal
      • BECKER - Teachers evaluate pupils on the 'ideal pupil' (Labelling Theory)
      • ROSENTHALand JACOBSON -    'Self Fulfilling Prophecy' - Identified some of the students as 'sputters' and they excelled
      • BALL - Teachers has stereotypical views of bands (1st - most able, 2nd - most difficult to teach, 3rd- Learning problems, least able).
      • GILLBORN AND YOUDELL - 'Educational traige' and 'A to c' economy causing teachers to target certain students
      • LACEY - Pupil subcultures evolve as response to streaming
        • Differentiation  - Teachers categorise pupils according to how they perceive them
        • Polarisation - Pupils respond to streaming by moving to one of the opposing poles
          • Pro School culture - M/C students in high bands, gaining status through academic success
          • Anti- School subculture - W/C students in low bands and low self esteem gaining status through peers
      • RIST - As as early as the 8th day of school children are labelled- wasn't based on ability but how much the child conformed the the teachers M/C values
        • M/C students were 'the tigers' and W/C students were called 'the clowns'
      • HARGREAVES -Three stages of typing/classifying students
        • 1. Speculation - Judged on appearance, how they conform to discipline, enthuasium and ability
        • 2. Elaboration - Test the hypothesis
        • 3. Stabilisation -  Difficult to see badly behaved students in a bad way


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