Russia 1855-1964 Social change

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  • Social change
    • Reasons for social change
      • Partially linked to economic change and ideology
      • Population growth, natural rate of growth stimulated by better economic conditions
      • Urbanisation of peasants into towns and cities
      • Decline in the nobility, selling land to pay off debts
      • Communist ideology placed an emphasis on equality and gave greater authority and responsibility to workers
    • Extent of social change
      • POPULATION GROWTH:
        • 1858- 74 million inhabitants, 1960- 212 million inhabitants
        • Must also recongise that the composition and extent of the empire changed
      • SOCIAL STRUCTURE:
        • End of 19th century still very rural based, 80% pop. reliant on agriculture.
        • The rise of the middle class, 1914 2 mill middle class citizens
        • Nobility in decline- 1870s gentry owned 200 million acres of land, 1914 140 million acres
        • Dramatic change under the communists-  majority of society were workers, but elite doinated hierarchical bureaucracy, status rankings began to appear in workers, by 1930s 1.5 mill managers
    • EDUCATION:
      • TSARS:
        • ELEMENTARY:
          • Alexander II placed elementary under Zemstva control
          • by 1877 the Ministry of Education had taken control and inspectors introduced
          • 1880 23,000 primary schools, 1914 81,000
        • SECONDARY:
          • Alexander II 'new code', doubled number attending by 1865
          • Alexander III banned lower class children
        • HIGHER EDUCATION:
          • Under Stolypin all non-academic meetings of students at unis illegal
          • Alexander III took away much autonomy of unis
      • COMMUNISTS:
        • ELEMENTARY:
          • 1930 attendance at primary school made compulsory until 12
          • By 1930 18 million children attending
        • SECONDARY:
          • 'Bourgeois' gymnasia scrapped and replaced with polytechnics
          • By 1932 6.9 million children attending
          • 1939 Stalin scrapped school fees

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