Social 1951-1990

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  • Social 1951-1990
    • Women
      • Women in the 1950s
        • very few women went to work after getting married
        • women had been in work en masse during the war
        • by the 1960s 80% factory work was done by women
        • unusal for women to go to university; though more girls passed the 11+
          • 1954 = 2/3 girls in grammar schools, so law to limit number of girls allowed
        • women had to relinquish their jobs when men came back from war
        • 1951 - 22% married women worked
        • before the war 10% married women worked; 1961 30% married women worked
        • disbanding of state-run nurseries in 1945 = women had to stay at home
        • Family Allowance in 1946 - women stay at home
        • housewife's day consisted of cleaning & washing with labour-intensive and ineffective machinery
        • a 1950s survey by the Manchester Guardian found that 50% of housewives were bored
        • washing machine, vacuum cleaner, fridges and supermarkets gave housewives more freedom
        • establishment of the National Housewives Register in 1960 by Maureen Nicol
          • 15,000 members by 1970
        • chemicals & electronics & DVLA (1965) & NHS (1948) needed clerks, typists & part-time work - no need for men's strength
      • Women in the 1960s & 1970s
        • Abortion Act 1967
          • previously 40,000 unmarried women sent to homes per year
          • 100,000 illegal backstreet abortions
          • 1959-62 poorly tested Thalidomide drug caused deformities
          • gave women greater control over their bodies
          • allowed up to 28 weeks
        • Family Planning Act 1967
          • had to provide guidance & contraceptives to everyone
          • by 1970, 19% married women and 9% single women using it
          • not everyone agreed (church)
        • Divorce Reform Act 1969
          • made a 'no fault' divorce possible
          • by 1970, one in every two marriages ended in divorce
          • number of divorces rose & as did the number of illegitimate births
            • 5.8% 1960, 8.2% 1970
          • new laws helped women escape difficult marriages
        • Married Women's Property Act 1964
          • allowed women to keep half the money they'd saved from housekeeping
        • Matromonial Homes Act 1967
          • recognised men and women had equal rights of occupation in the family home
        • Matromonial Property Act 1970
          • women's contribution was equal to making a home
            • should be considered when dividing up property in divorce
        • Guardianship of Children Act 1973
          • mothers given equal rights to fathers over their children
        • Feminism
          • Local Women's Liberation groups began appearing in 1960s
          • Feminist articles / books published eg Shrew magazine & Spare Rib
          • Feb 1970 - first National Women's Liberation Conference at Ruskin College
            • equal pay & equal opportunities legislation
          • increased education & access to HE
          • increased availability of jobs
          • did make progress
            • 1970 Equal Pay Act passed
            • 1971 birth control pill made available on the NHS
            • 1975 Employment Protection Act passed; Sex Discrimination Act passed;   Equal Pay Act comes into force
            • 1977 International Women's Day estd. by UN
            • 1979 TUC publishes charter; 'Equality for Women Within Trade Unions'
            • women's wages 57% - 70% of mens wages 1970-79
            • State Earnings Related Pension Scheme 1975
          • didn't make progress
            • movement didn't have widespread support
            • critical newspaper stories about feminists
            • female nude 'page 3' model in 1970
            • the Campaign for the Feminine Woman
            • increasing organised opposition to the movement from both men and women
            • 1960-1980 5% - 8% increase in female lawyers
    • Immigration
      • Background
        • before WW2, very few non-white people living permanently in the UK, but there were 2. million by 1971
      • The Problem of Immigration
        • 26,000 Caribbean citizens coming to UK per year in 1950s
        • 1960-2 230,000 New Commonwealth citizens come to the UK
        • Riots in 1958, Notting Hill & 1981 Brixton, Liverpool, Bristol and Birmingham
        • proportion of UK population of non-European origin was never more than 6%
        • there was more emigration than immigration
        • today, intermarriage increasing; black role models; racial tolerance
      • Race Relations in Cities
        • post-war housing shortage blamed on immigrants
        • competition in inner cities for housing & jobs between locals and immigrants
          • bitterness at rise in rents because a group of blacks living together could afford them, but a single white could not
        • whites believed immigrants attracted to Britain by generous welfare benefits
      • Tightening Immigration Laws
        • Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962; placed restrictions on would-be entrants according to ethnic origin and limited immigration through system of work permits
        • labour introduced second Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968; both major parties concluded restrictions on immigration needed
        • Race Relations Act 1965: outlawed discrimination based on 'the grounds of colour, race or ethnic or national origins' in public places
      • how accepting was British Society?
        • more accepting
          • 1976 race Relations Act
            • made racial discrimination illegal I employment
            • made it illegal to use threatening / abusive language to incite racial violence & criminal offences
            • commission for Racial Equality to ensure enforcement of the Act
          • National Front was never widely accepted & by the end of the 1970s support decreased - 1974 ITV documentary series 'This Week'
            • 1979 party was almost bankrupt after putting forward 303 candidates that were all beaten due to opposition parties eg Anti-Nazi League
          • 1976 Notting Hill Carnival
            • resistance to police arresting black teenagers said to be pickpockets
          • 1978 Rock Against Racism organised demonstration in London
            • 80,000 people marched & it made holding racist opinions deeply unfashionable amongst young people
          • TV started to see more black people eg Lenny Henry. 'Crossroads' and 1974 ITV's 'Tomorrow People'
          • West Indian music became popular in the UK & there were multiracial bands eg 'The  Equals' & 'The Foundations'
            • Famous bands such as 'The Beatles', 'The Clash' & 'The Police' created reggae - influenced music
        • less accepting
          • problems with the 1976 Race Relations Act
            • didn't cover govt. jobs
            • no money for poor victims to take legal action
            • little accurate data to show there was indirect discrimination
          • National Front
            • campaigned to deport West Indian & Asian immigrants
            • 1976 it had 20,000 members
            • Feb 1974  put up 90 candidates
            • 1977 4th largest political party in the UK
          • August 1977 'Battle of Lewisham
            • left-wing Socialist Workers party members attacked the National Front
            • 134 people needed hospital treatment
            • 214 arrested
          • Police were generally unsympathetic & took little interest in racial attacks, perhaps attacking immigrants themselves
            • 1971 most police officers believed that black people were more likely to be criminals
            • 1975 Special Patrol Group were sent to South London to target black muggers
              • 14,000 people stopped & 400 arrested
              • terrified immigrant communities
          • black people generally faced discrimination& racist chants in sport
            • at the end of the 1970s, 50 out of 2000 professional football players were black
          • there was still racism in TV eg 'Rising Damp' and 'Mind Your Language'
    • Youth
      • Development of Youth Culture 1950s
        • early 1950s - Teddy Boys late 1950s - Rockers, then Mods
        • Britain was slowly growing accustomed
        • Crime
          • Kray Twins - reputation for extreme violence
          • more than doubled 1955-1965
            • previously very law-abiding
          • Mods v Rockers: Clacton, Brighton & Margate 1964. Vastly exaggerated by the media
        • Mods: rode scooters, wore smart suits & listened to sophisticated pop
        • Rockers: rode motorcycles, wore leather & listened to rock & roll
        • Explanations of behaviour
          • growing affluence: good wages - independence
          • pockets of poverty (these people embittered)
          • first teenagers not growing up in the Depression/ WW2
            • didn't follow what their parents had done
            • jobs and money not handed over to parents - no financial commitments
          • wanted to throw off traditional restraints
          • more freedom
            • did more to enjoy themselves
            • unwritten culture laws being rewritten
      • Youth Culture 1960s and 1970s
        • Rockers - Punks and Mods - Skinheads
          • provocative; teens expressing themselves through music and fashion
            • encouraged anarchy, riots and hooliganism
              • SKINHEADS: working class version of mods
                • closely cropped hairstyles, wore braces, rolled up jeans and DM boots
                • listened to ska music influenced by West Indian reggae music
                • fought at football matches & became involved in racially - motivated violence
              • PUNKS: 'inexperienced youth' who were very aggressive
                • brightly coloured cropped hair; mohicans / spiky hair; dog collars, nazi emblems, pins, studs, zips, leather & ******* gear
                • took part in 'pogo-ing' at gigs, spitting & fighting
                • gave equal importance to both female & male artists
                • behaviour spilled over into 'hooliganism'
                  • 1977 Home International football match at Wembley Scotland v England
                  • 1978 FA Cup quarterfinal between Millwall & Ipswitch - dozens injured
                  • Tottenham Hotspur v Chelsea fans on pitch 1975
          • rising unemployment. led to boredom & attracted youths to violent and nihilistic punk culture
          • the Sex Pistols were the most notorious of the punk bands as they deliberately tried to be controversial
            • 'God Save the Queen'; the barge; swearing on teatime TV
          • punk movement started in USA in 1960s
            • it was music played by people without particular skill in singing or playing an instrument
            • it was deliberately provocative,attacked the Royal family, dead-end jobs, the police, war, anarchy, riots & consumerism
            • it was about attitude
        • modernism and satire allowed youth to disregard traditions - anti-establishment
        • younger people had greater independence due to higher wages
        • universities increased HE opportunities for men & women; 214,000 F & 302,000 M by 1975
          • 1970s - 3x more unemployed than 1960s. 4/10 , 25 year olds out of work and 104,000 on benefits
          • Open University gave more people access to HE
      • Education
        • by the Labour govt 1964, not enough emphasis on education and training in industry
          • more training of young apprentices needed
            • firms must spend more on training
        • Brain Drain - graduates moving to the US fro money & opportunities
        • Anthony Crossland - Education Secretary
          • Published Circular 10/65
          • famously quotes as saying 'I won't rest until I've destroyed every last &@*%£! grammar school in England'
        • The Great Grammar School Debate
          • the publication of Circular 10/65 in 1965 paved the way for the abolition of almost all grammar schools
          • the comprehensive school system was introduced to replace 11+ selection seen by many at the time as unfair & old-fashioned
          • the Wilson govt. was not the first or last govt. to abolish grammar schools, but did make it a priority
        • The Robbins Report 1963 - predated Labour govt
          • was accepted by both Cons and Labour
          • it called for a doubling of university places; new universities were built in Warwick, East Anglia, York and Sussex
        • 1969 Open University - Wilson later called it his proudest achievement as PM
    • General
      • 'Never had it so good'
        • For
          • wages rose ahead of prices; wages rose 6.5% 1948-58. Adult male wage £8.65 - £18.75 1969
          • greater availability of credit; consumer boom began; foreign holidays, cars, clothing, mod con
          • housing improved: 1951-54 300,000 per year; mortgages available - increased home ownership; 600,000+ houses built by 1951 and 1.7 million houses by 1964
          • Clean Air Act 1956; London and other cities - better health following Great Smog 1952 that killed 12,000
          • exported 29% more goods in the late 1950s than in 1951
          • 10 million TV sets owned in 1960
          • 1952-59 consumer expenditure rose by over 50%
          • unemployment never more than 2%
        • Against
          • Inflation: tax cuts = increased consumer spending
          • lack of genuine economic policy: stop-go economics and stagflation
          • low GDP growth rate due to heavy defence expenditure (2.4% per annum)
          • high unemployment
          • education: divides between grammar, comprehensive and technical
      • Social Class 1950s-1960s
        • class was becoming less important and classes began to shift and mingle together
        • class divisions were weakened by the war
        • the creation of the welfare state was an acknowledgment that the well-being of the whole population was a matter of national concern
        • spread of wealth across the population led to increased affluence
          • financial credit and its increasing availability meant that more people could buy possessions; therefore ceased to show wealth
        • classes still existed and leaders were all from the upper classes
        • rising living standards
        • welfare state created; spread of wealth and rise in living standards
      • Social Reforms
        • Race Relations Acts 1965 & 1968
        • Abortion Act 1967
        • Sexual Offences Act 1967
        • C-wealth Immigrants Act 1968
        • Theatres Act 1968
        • Abolition of the Death Penalty 1969
        • Divorce Reform Act 1969
      • Ending National Service
        • young men no longer so regimented
        • hair length grew - socially rebellious statement
        • older forms of authority eg church or school were no longer so influential in society
      • Censorship
        • 1959 Obscene Publications Act
        • 1960 Trail of Lady Chatterly's Lover
      • Drugs
        • Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act 1964 - amphetamines
        • Dangerous Drugs Act 1967- heroin, cocaine & cannabis
        • Rates of drug addiction rising faster in the UK than any other country worldwide
      • 1960s Overall
        • as death penalty abolished, majority verdicts in criminal trials introduced making it easier to get convictions
        • increases in rates of STDs and five times more **** cases
        • surveys in 1965, 1969 &1971 showed most young people not promiscuous - virgins or married to first and only sexual partner
        • Mary Whitehouse
          • set up 'Clean Up TV' campaign 1964
            • had lots of support and made 300 speeches a year
          • set up National Viewers and Listeners' Association in 1965
        • Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' Speech
          • caused a political storm - Heath sacked him from the Shadow Cabinet
            • his political career was over - tipped as future Cons. leader
              • mentor to young Margaret Thatcher - his economic ideas went on to influence her
          • London dockers went on strike to show support
          • Powell now outside the political mainstream despite 74% of the population agreeing with his speech
      • Environment
        • 1950-1973 often described as the 'long boom'
        • prosperity, wages, living standards all improved dramatically across Western world, inc. UK
        • mass consumerism spread to all levels of society as wages out-stripped prices
        • prices of basic goods eg food & fuel fell leaving people with excess income for luxury spending on cars, holidays, homes & consumer items
        • by 1970s, there was growing awareness of how industry was harming the environment
        • pollution & waste were becoming major concerns
        • environmental movement was created to stop pollution, nuclear power, whaling & other harmful industries
          • also a rejection of western values of consumer society
            • consumerism as a way of life was seen as unsustainable fro the planet & morally wrong when there was still so much global poverty
        • also a realisation that the earth's resources (eps. oil) were finite & being used too quickly
        • Greenpeace began in the early 1970s to stop nuclear testing in the Pacific. it grew in to a major ecological pressure group of the 1970s & 80s
        • Conservationism
          • after the 1960s there was a backlash against modern architecture, tower blocks & motorways
          • a growing conservation movement wanted to preserve old buildings, towns, monuments, beautiful countryside & even traditional beer
          • the post-war optimistic belief that technology & modernisation's the answer to everything was now seriously questioned.
            • Economic growth for its own sake was now being questioned
  • set up 'Clean Up TV' campaign 1964
    • had lots of support and made 300 speeches a year

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