Smuggling, poaching and highway robbery

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      • Became more popular in 17th century due to taxation on imported goods
        • Was a capital crime punishable by death
      • Reasons for smuggling: You could cheaply obtain desirable goods to sell on, quick way of making money and relatively easy
      • Goods smuggled: Tea, brandy & Tobacco etc
      • Hawkhurst gang - famous gang of smugglers who often used violence against customs officers
      • Smugglers: 70% were labourers, less than 10% were small farmers, rest were tradesman and wealthy people e.g. PM Robert Walpole
      • Reasons: Quicker and more exciting way to make money, could earn up to 6 or 7 times a farm labourers usual wage
      • Increased by: Increased travel, increased wealth, better transport links and more opputunity
      • MYTH: glamorous image, romantic, well-dressed gentlemen who were polite to their vicitms
      • DICK TURPIN - Essex 1705 and executed in 1739, ruthless highwaymen, robbed women travelling alone and killed 1 man who tried to capture him - FEARED
      • AUTHORITIES - big problem as there was no police force and they were extremely violent and feared
      • DECREASE: Banks introduced - people no longer carried large sums of money, mounted patrols, countryside was built up
      • Only landowners whose land was worth £100 a year could hunt
      • 1723 Waltham Black Act - Hunting deer, hare or rabbits was a capital crime punishable by death
      • Critics - simply their to protect the interests of rich landowners - laws made by MPs (landowners)
      • Reasons for poaching: Traditional custom for rich, excitement, a way of making money to survive


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