Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide

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  • Smoking- Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide
    • Nicotine
      • Chemical in cigarettes that causes addiction
      • Has a variety of effects on the body
        • The body becomes used to these effects and the smoker no longer feels well unless they have nicotine in  their blood
      • Mimics the action of transmitter substances at the synapses between the nerves.
        • Makes nervous system more sensitive and the smoker feels more alert
      • Causes the release of adrenaline.
        • Has a variety of effects that prepares the body for activity
          • Include increasing heart and breathing rate, and causing constriction of the arterioles
            • Raises blood pressure in the arterioles
              • Has a variety of effects that prepares the body for activity
                • Include increasing heart and breathing rate, and causing constriction of the arterioles
                  • Raises blood pressure in the arterioles
        • Causes constriction of the arterioles leading to the extremities of the body
          • Reduces blood flow and oxygen delivery to the extremities
            • In extreme cases cane lead to need for amputation
        • Also affects the platelets to make them sticky
          • Increases the risk that a blood clot or thrombus may form
      • Carbon Monoxide
        • Enters red blood cells and combines with haemoglobin
          • Combines much more readily than oxygen
            • Forms stable compound carboxyhaemoglobin
          • Reduces oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
            • Smokers will feel this when they exercise
              • The body will detect the lower level of oxygen and it may cause heart rate to rise
        • Damages lining of the arteries
      • Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide
        • Enter the lings, and pass through the lung surface into the blood
          • In blood they cause changes to circulation
            • Changes lead to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases
              • Atherosclerosis
              • Coronary heart disease (CHD)
              • Stroke
        • Changes lead to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases
          • Atherosclerosis
          • Coronary heart disease (CHD)
          • Stroke

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