Addiction - Biological Approach - Smoking

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  • Smoking
    • AO1
      • Initiation - individual differences in smoking initiation 42-44%genetic (Boardman et al. 2008; Vink et al,2005)
      • Maintenance - Vink et al, estimate nicotine dependence 75% genetic and linked to individual differences in nicotine metabolism. Pre-natal exposure to nicotine importance in determining later addiction
      • Relapse - Xian et al found ability to quit smoking is also substantially heritable. Uhl et al attempted to identity gene cluster associate with quit success and nicotine dependence
    • Evaluation
      • Supporting evidence for genetic influence on smoking - Thorgeirsson et al identified gene variant on chromosome 15.
      • Biological explanations neglect other possible determining factors, including social context of smoking.
      • Genomic medicine - screening to identify those with genes that increase susceptibility to smoking addiction. Gartner et al - screening for susceptibility unlikely to be practical
      • Asp40 variant less likely to quit with low dose NRT - genetic testing might allow therapist to match cessation therapy with genotype

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