F212 Smoking

The whole of smoking, step by step.

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  • Created by: Lottie
  • Created on: 01-06-13 09:24
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  • Smoking
    • Short term effects
      • Tar
        • Settles on the lining of the airways and alveoli.
          • Increases diffusion distance in gas exchange.
        • Combination of chemicals
          • May cause an allergic reaction.  smooth muscle contracts.
            • Lumen of airway gets smaller, restricting air flow to alveoli.
        • Paralyses cilia and stimulates goblet cells.
          • Pathogens trapped in mucus and not removed. Multiply.
            • Block bronchioles
            • More susceptible to infection.
    • Problems to blood system
      • Coronary Heart Disease
        • Reduced blood flow to heart muscles
          • Herat attack or myocardial infarction
          • Angina
          • Heart Failure
      • Stroke
        • Death of part of the brain tissue
          • Loss of blood flow to that part of the brain
            • Artery leading to brain bursts.
            • Blood clot
      • Thrombosis
        • Blood flowing past plaque can't pass smoothly.
          • Thrombus
        • Sticky platelets
          • Thrombus
        • RBCs stick to fatty substances
        • Atherosclerosis
          • Damage to inner lining of arteries
            • Repaired by phagocytes
              • Encourage growth of smooth muscle and deposition of fatty substances.
                • Atheromas may grow enough to break through
                  • Forms a plaque
                    • Sticks out into lumen
      • Diseases related to smoking
        • Chronic Bronchitis
          • Inflammation of lining of airways.
            • Continual cough, coughing up mucus.
              • Too much mucus
          • Too much mucus
        • Emphysema
          • Loss of elasticity in alveoli.
            • Alveoli burst
              • Less SA for gas exchange
          • Shallow, rapid breathing
            • Fatigue
        • COPD
          • Combination of diseases
            • Emphysema
            • Asthma
            • Chronic  Bronchitis
        • Lung Cancer
          • Continual cough
          • Shortness of breath
          • Angina
          • Coughing up blood
      • Blood
        • Nicotine
          • Addiction
          • Sensitive  Nervous System
            • Feels more alert
          • Releases adrenaline
            • increases heart rate and breathing rate. Constricts arterioles
              • Raises blood pressure in arterioles
              • Reduces blood and oxygen to extremeties
          • Makes platelets sticky
            • Increases risk or blood clot or thrombus
        • Carbon Monoxide
          • Combines with haemoglobin
            • Reduces oxygen  carrying capacity of blood
              • Raises heart rate
          • Damages the lining of the arteries
      • Long term effects
        • Smokers cough resulting from irritation of airways.
          • Damages delicate linings of airways and alveoli.
            • Replaced by less flexible scar tissue.
              • Reduces airway lumen, airflow is permanently restricted.
            • Smooth muscle thickens.
              • Reduces airway lumen, airflow is permanently restricted.
        • Frequent infections inflame the lining of airways.
          • Attract white blood cells.
            • Release elastin to get to infection.
              • No recoil. Bronchioles collapse. Alveoli burst.
        • Lung Cancer
          • Tar contains carcinogens.

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